Details of Deep Foundation

A deep foundation means a type of foundation that disperse building loads to the earth more distant down from the surface, what a shallow foundation perform, to a subsurface layer or a range of depths. A pile refers to a perpendicular structural element of a deep foundation, directed or drilled deep into the ground on the building site.

Deep foundations are set up too intensely under the finished ground surface because of their base bearing capability that can be influenced with surface conditions. It is generally remained at depths >3 m under finished ground level.

Deep foundation is designed to bear loads from a structure via frail compressible soils or fills on to robust and less flexible soils or rocks at depth, or for functional reasons.

If, the strata of good bearing capability does not exist adjacent to the ground, the foundation of the structure should be rooted deep to facilitate obtaining a bearing stratum that is appropriate in all respects.

Besides, there are other conditions for which deep foundations are essential for the consistency and longevity of a structure. Generally, the deep foundations are essential for the various types of constructions like piles, caissons and basement or hollow box foundation.


A pile refers to a long cylinder of a solid material like concrete that is digged into the ground to provide a strong support for structures constructed on top of it.

Pile foundation is useful when the structure can’t resist load due to low & insufficient bearing capacity of soil. This happens because of the soil condition or the order of bottom layers, type of loads on foundations, conditions at site and operational conditions. Pile foundations are formed with wood, concrete or steel and can be either precast or cast on site in case of concrete.

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Details of Deep Foundation

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Arka Roy


Detailed guidelines on Bar Bending Schedule of Beam

This construction video is based on Beam Reinforcement Details. By watching this video, one will be familiar with Bar Bending Schedule of Beam with some easy to follow processes.

Reinforcement in beam

The role of reinforcement is to withstand tensile stresses because of bending and shear in beams for singly reinforced sections. But some factors like architectural reasons or basement floors can limit the depth of section. Therefore, the beam section is designed as doubly reinforced to withstand tensile and compressive stresses and delivered with reinforcement in compression face.

Bar Bending Schedule for RCC Beam

Bar bending schedule is used to make the reinforcement calculation toward reinforced concrete beam. It presents the details of reinforcement cutting length, type of bends and bend length.

The following article will provide you more information on Bar Bending Schedule For RCC Beam.


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Arka Roy


The reason behind the usage of reinforcement in concrete

Rebar which is also addressed as reinforcing bar is a key element of reinforced concrete. It is typically structured from ridged carbon steel; the ridges give frictional adhesion to the concrete. Rebar is used for the reason that even though concrete is very tough in compression it is in effect without strength in tension.

One of the most extensively used modern building materials is reinforced concrete. Concrete is defined as an “artificial stone” achieved by mixing cement, sand, and aggregates with water. Fresh concrete can take any kind of shape, giving it an intrinsic benefit over other materials.

The reinforcement in concrete possibly will be simple bar or series of bars, bend to a given schedule which known as bar schedule and tied in accordance with the reinforcement drawings with stirrups.

Watch the full demonstration about usage of reinforcement in concrete.

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Arka Roy


Step-by-step guidelines to estimate bricks of a wall

This construction video will introduce you to step-by-step by procedures for estimating the bricks of a wall. The video will provide useful information to select a brick size, lay out modular dimensions with the preferred size as well as generate a materials estimate for brick and mortar.

Brick are formed with different types of sizes and placed in the diverse patterns. Most patterns of brickwork abide by a common module that allows easy dimensioning of the brickwork and any masonry openings.

Usually, it becomes easier for the designers to reduce the number of cuts of entire brick by dimensioning to a module. With a clear idea on the size of the brick and bond pattern, it is possible to produce an estimation of the number of brick and amount of mortar required for the project.

The measurements and dimensions equal to brick manufactured mainly in the United States to a standard module of 4 in. (102 mm). Brick manufactured for projects that needs metric dimensions, generally comply with a module of 100 mm (3.94 in.).


There are different sizes of brick and each size has different utility. As for instance, larger brick are built up to upsurge bricklaying economy, and thinner brick facilitates saving resources.

Brick Orientation

There exist three dimensions for a brick – width alias thickness, height and length. Even though brick is placed in six dissimilar orientations, these dimensions can be applied to a brick that is placed as a stretcher. Height and length are often known as face dimensions, as these dimensions are applicable when the brick is placed as a stretcher.

Brick Dimensions

A brick contains three various sets of dimensions – nominal, specified and actual. Proper care & perfectness should be taken so that any confusion can be evaded throughout design and construction.


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Arka Roy


Detailed information on Shallow Foundation

Shallow foundation

A shallow foundation is defined as the foundation that transmits the building loads to the earth adjacent to the surface. It’s depth is equivalent to or under its width.

Categories of shallow foundation:

1. Spread footingThe role of Spread footing is to extend the super imposed loads of the structure over a extensive zone.

Spread footing is subcategorized as below :

• Single footing for a column.

• Stepped footing for a column.

• Sloped footing for a column.

Concrete is utilized to create the base of these types of footings.

• Wall footing without steps and with steps.

Grillage foundationgrillage foundation is considered as most cost effective while transmitting the heavy structural loads concerning a column to the soil of low bearing capacity. Depth of such a foundation is restricted to 0.9 to 1.6 meter.

2. Combined footing

The combined footing is developed for two or more columns.

Shape of combined footing is balanced in such a ratio so that the center of gravity of the supporting area remains consistent with the center of gravity of the two column loads. It is formed as either rectangular or trapezoidal.

A combined rectangular footing is useful where both the columns bear identical load or interior column bears superior load. A combined trapezoidal footing is arranged under any situations of loading.

3. Strap footing Strap footing is undertaken when two or more footings are associated with a beam. It is required when the distance among the columns is so excessive that a combined trapezoidal footing turns to be little constricted, containing great bending moments.

4. Mat or Raft foundation Mat or raft foundation is described as a consolidated reinforced concrete slab that covers the entire region of the bottom of the structure.

Mat or raft foundation is useful in the following conditions :-

• If the soil located below contains bearing capacity as well as the building loads are substantial.

• If the combined area of individual footing exceeds half of the total area of the structure, then application of mat or raft foundation will be cost effective.

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Detailed information on Shallow Foundation

Published By
Arka Roy

What is 1.54 in Concrete during the calculation of quantity of sand, cement and aggregate?

L & T – Learning Technology is a treasure trove for civil engineering students and civil engineering users. This channel offers exclusive and noteworthy technical lectures on “Civil Engineering” which are unconditionally beneficial for construction professionals too.

Here in this video the presenter of this presentation portrays what is 1.54 factor in concrete during calculation of wet volume to dry volume.

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Published By
Arka Roy