How to calculate the height of an object on the basis of given angle & distance

By watching this construction video tutorial, you will be able to work out the height of any object on the basis of angle and distance provided. It is very useful for surveyors.

In brief, the height of an object is determined by calculating the distance from the object and the angle of elevation of the top of the object.

The tangent of the angle refers to the object height that is divided by the distance from the object. In this way, the height is obtained.

The calculation is made on the basis of the following formula :-

SinØ = P/H = Perpendicular/Hypotenuse

CosØ = B/H = Base/Hypotenuse

TanØ = P/B = Perpendicular/Base

Suppose, in a triangle, the angle is taken as 45 degree. The opposite of the angle should be always taken as perpendicular and opposite site of the perpendicular should be taken as hypotenuse. The horizontal line is taken as base and it’s measurement is 10 meter.

Now, all the values should be put on the above formulas to check which one is matched to determine the height. Watch the following video tutorial to learn the remaining calculation process.

To get more information, go through the following video tutorial.

How to calculate the height of an object on the basis of given angle & distance

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Arka Roy


How to use kani’s method for making analysis of continuous beam

In this construction video tutorial, the renowned civil engineer, Mr. Parag Pal, has briefly explained how kanis method is used to continuous beam that contains fixed ends, to evaluate the beam and obtain the final moments.

The continuous beam comprises of the point load and the UDL load.

This method was developed by Dr. Gasper Kani of Germany in 1947.

The method provides a iterative scheme for employing slope deflection method. It is mostly recognized for frame analysis.

It comprises allotting the unidentified fixed end moments of structural members to adjoining joints, with the purpose of meeting the conditions of continuity of slopes and displacements.


1. Kani’s method circulates the total joint moment at any phase of iteration.

2. The more crucial feature of Kani’s method is that it is self reformative. If any fault occurs at any phase of iteration, amendment is made in consequent steps.

Framed structures are seldom symmetric and dependent on side sway, therefore Kani’s method is considered as greatest and much easier as compared to other methods like moment distribution method and slope displacement method.

To get more information on kani’s method, go through the following video tutorial.

How to use kani’s method for making analysis of continuous beam

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Arka Roy

Different types of beam section in RCC structures

In this construction video tutorial, you will gather information on different types of beam section in RCC structures. Usually, there are three types of beam sections which range from balanced beam section , under reinforced beam section and over reinforced beam section.

It is known that a beam comprises of two components i.e. reinforcement and concrete.

Balanced Beam Section: If the ratio of steel to concrete in a section prevails in such a manner that the strain in steel and strain in concrete attain their maximum values all at once, the section is identified as a balanced or critical section and the percentage of steel in this section is defined as critical steel percentage.

Under-Reinforced Beam Section: Under-reinforced section: A section that contains steel percentage below the critical percentage is called as under-reinforced section. As steel lacks to adjust compression in concrete, the tensile strain in steel attains yield value whereas the highest compressive strain in concrete is under its ultimate crushing value.

The section undertakes large rotational deformations from the preliminary phase of yielding of steel to the final stage of crushing of concrete, providing adequate warning of impending failure.

Given below, an extensive lists of different types of basic geometry formulas :-

Yielding of steel in under-reinforced beam section does not signify that the structure has failed, because if steel yields, extreme deflection and cracking in beam will happen prior to failure which provides sufficient time to occupants to escape ahead of the section fails.

The failure in under-reinforced beam section occurs as the concrete attains its ultimate failure strain of 0.0035 prior to steel attains its failure strain which is greater than 0.20 to 0.25.

Over-Reinforced Beam Sections: Reinforced concrete beam sections, in which the failure strain in concrete is attained sooner than the yield strain of steel is obtained, are known as over-reinforced beam sections.

If over-reinforced beam is designed and loaded to complete strength then the steel in tension zone will not yield much prior to the concrete attains its ultimate strain of 0.0035. It happens because of little yielding of steel, the deflection and cracking of beam does not happen and provide enough warning prior to failure.

Failures in over-reinforced sections happen suddenly. This type of design is not approved in practice of beam design.

To get more in-depth information, go through the following video tutorial.

 Different types of beam section in RCC structures
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Arka Roy

Estimating Integration

How estimation done: Costs are generally estimated with the help of some methods that are found in Time Management idea such as one-point estimating, analogous estimating, parametric estimating and three-point or PERT estimating; besides all of this there is a different kind of estimation named method of estimation.

Bottom-up estimation is involved in the final distribution time of a project where it adds estimation of costs at each activity or work package, turning it up into control units and then finally works on whole project estimate. So the estimated created by following steps:

• Project management software: There is various kind of software that increases calculation speed needed to estimate costs and the calculations included direct, indirect, overhead and fixed cost calculations for many activities.
• Deciding resource cost rates: resources can be various kinds like human resources, vendors, consultants, suppliers, external technicians etc. and the project managers are aware about the involved rate for the resource cost.
• Reserve analysis: It gathers identification of activities with significant risks and resolution of all efforts needs to manage the occurred risks.
• Cost of quality: The quality efforts are divided as Cost of Quality.

In the time working with integration, often it is asked about estimation of interfaces that follows below kind of scenarios:

• In the New implementation of Sap, the project manager has to execute lots of interfaces to join with the previous systems
• In the B2B integration, a lot of new pattern and messages will come
• Movement from one integration broker to another.

When any of the scenarios will come interfaces are estimated by following the steps and the development is shown there:

1. Identification
2. System interactions with supported adapters
3. Specification
4. Development
5. Testing and fixing
6. Transport and configuration
7. Document
8. Going live
9. Support.

All of the steps take extra time that will expand the initial time. The 80/20 principle was invented a long ago that states that spend less time to do more work and if more time spends in the beginning of the estimation then the whole process might take longer time to end. To avoid this scenario, it is important to study about the process and understands it properly then starts the work and as there are more variations of the interfaces that look similar then it will be easy to arrange them as per order.

It must keep in mind that performing estimation is not an easy task as there will be many unknown details about development that can be seem unclear before started; so just go through them and make a detailed report.

Estimating Integration

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Arka Roy

Vital factors to impact the design and construction of embankment dams

Numerous factors provide significant effect on the construction and design of embankment dam. Through the design phase, the designer should consider these factors to make the design better.

Given below, the detail information on these factors :-

a. Accessibility of materials for construction
b. Properties of embankment dam site
c. Shape and size of valley where the dam is developed
d. Atmosphere of the area
e. Diversion of river
f. Existing time for construction
g. Function of the reservoir
h. Feasible wave action
i. Earthquake activity in the area

Accessibility of Materials for Dam Construction: Generally, construction materials for embankment dams can be easily accessed and frequently available at or close to construction site at low cost. It will significantly impact the design of embankment dam.

If excavated material like earth excavated for spillway construction is utilized in the construction, the economy of construction is enhanced.

Embankment dam designed and constructed on the basis of existing construction material.

Type of material obtainable at project site Designed embankment dam on the basis of existing construction material.

a. Impervious soil material Consistent embankment dam
b. Rock and impenetrable material Rock fill dam
c. Previous and Impervious material Zoned earth dam,

Properties of Embankment Dam Site: Normally, embankment dams are built up on nearly all types of soil. The design is significantly impacted by the characteristics of soil upon which the dam is built up. One of the significant impact is managing the type of treatment applied for the foundation.

Besides, soil properties affect the dimension of the dam as for example if the soil contains low bearing strength, then it is essential to trim down slopes and employ superior cross section and freeboard.

These measures are essential to deal with deferential settlement of the embankment dam.

For more information, visit the following site

Vital factors to impact the design and construction of embankment dams

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Arka Roy

Variation among Lap Length and Development Length (Anchorage)

The reinforcement bars are mainly arranged to transmit the load from member to member i.e. either to another rebar or to concrete.

To transmit the load from one member to another securely & efficiently, reinforcement bars should have been tightly attached at both ends to resist skidding of the bars.

Lap Length: Lap length stands for the length of the overlap of bar necessary for securely delivering stress from one bar to another. Lap length varies in case of tension and compression zones and primarily based on concrete and steel. When, it is required to lap bars with various dia, the length is dependent on smaller dia.

The rebars are available in specific length. If the rebar has to be expanded apart from that limit, then there should be adequate lap length to safely transfer the load.

Lap length varies on the basis of tension (at bottom of a beam) and compression zones (at top of beam) and various factors like grade of concrete, rebar size, concrete cover etc affect the lap length.

Development Length: Development length stands for the length of the bar essential to transmit stress from steel to concrete.

As per IS456, the computed tension or compression in any bar at any section should be developed on each side of the section with an accurate development or by end anchorage or with a combination thereof.

As per IS 456:2000, the computed tension or compression in any bar at any section should be formed on every side of the section with proper development length or with an end anchorage to resist skidding of the member from the support.

Such length should be arranged in a continuous beam, cantilever slabs and other critical joints (beam-column). It will be supplied as a bend where the restraining member is thin similar to an end beam as demonstrated under (Ld).

Article Source:

Variation among Lap Length and Development Length (Anchorage)

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Arka Roy

How to choose perfect brand of cement for house construction

The cement is considered as one of the most vital materials in building construction. It enhances the stability of any construction. So, the proper should be taken regarding the selection of cement as wrong selection can hamper the quality of construction.

While going to select the cement, the following queries may appear in mind :-

What type of cement should be chosen?

If similar type can be applied for all cement applications?
Which cement brand should be perfect for work?
Accessibility of cement chosen during construction period?

Given below, the solution of the above query, so that the perfect brand of cement can be selected.

1. What type of Cement should be chosen: Diverse forms of cement can be found in building works for different purposes. So, it is vital to recognize the properties of each type of cement and their applications. Normally, three types of cements are applied in general construction purposes which range from Ordinary Portland Cement (43 Grade & 53 Grade), Portland Pozzolana Cement and Portland Slag Cement.

Given below, different applications of these cements: OPC 53 Grade cement is effective in all RCC structures like footing, column, beam and slabs, where ever primary and final strength are considered as the most important structural requirement.

PPC and PSC cements are mostly recommended for general construction works as well as Masonry, Plaster, Tiling works since primary strength is not a prime factor of performance in this application.

2. Can similar type of Cement be utilized for all Cement Applications?

Various types of Cement contain diverse properties which can save huge money and make the quality of construction better.

The type of cement suggested for all RCC works is OPC 53 Grade because they contain extreme initial and ultimate strength, which are primary conditions for structural requirement (i.e., in RCC Members).

It is suggested to utilize PPC or PSC, whichever is cost-effective, for non-structural/masonry purposes like Masonry, Plaster, Tiling works etc.. These cements contain slower rate of heat of hydration and produce less cracks and lower shrinkage). They have greater functionality and can be completed in a superior manner because of the existence of fly ash in PPC & GGBFS in PSC.

To get more information, go through the following construction article

How to choose perfect brand of cement for house construction

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Arka Roy

Some significant benefits of drone in surveying work

Now-a-days drones become very popular in surveying works. Drones allow you to conduct a survey of your property easily for drawing up exact legal property lines. With drones, it becomes easier to demarcate the boundaries prior to start any major construction, fencing, or adding service roads. Given below, some vital benefits of drones.

Greater Resolution: A drone can fly nearer to the ground to catch aerial video and pictures. The produced images and collected data from the drone are sharper and contain superior resolution compared with the information gather from a plane or helicopter.

It facilitates to get more authentic information. Images with superior detail can be used for better decision-making in property utilization.

Access the unattainable: It becomes difficult to obtain perfect surveying results from the areas having dense brush, trees, ponds, rivers, steep embankments, swamps, and marshes. With misaligned results, it is not possible to get perfect result for survey in some cases. Drones can freely pass through any areas which appear as impossible. A drone can focus on areas which are problematic because of proper visual sighting. The results bring you the entire picture of the property as a whole.

Rapid Data Retrieval: Trained, professional drone pilots have good knowledge in obtaining the information instantly required by you. An “as the crow flies” feature reduces the time significantly for a survey crew to avail further reaches of significant properties. The drone will record all of the necessary information and set back instantly.

Security of Survey Crews: A survey crew often faces challenge while making survey in areas which contain rough, uneven terrain, cliffs, embankments, loose gravel, fast-running water, and tough brush. An injury may occur with little to no warning. With the use of a drone, it is possible to obtain a close-up aerial view and it safeguards the crews from danger.

Perfect Equipment for Mapping, Surveys, and Inspections: Drone is suitable for performing property surveys, mapping, as well as on-site inspections. All of these are accomplished instantly and with little disruption to any running construction work. You can get latest and perfect information that is crucial when perfect data is necessary for large projects.

Cost-Effective Results: A drone can bring you an accurate survey of the property with little human effort, in less time, and achieve superior results. These save your money significantly and get the real value for a property owner.

Some significant benefits of drone in surveying work

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Arka Roy

A position is vacant for Senior Project Manager and Project Manager in construction sector (VIC – Melbourne)

A position is vacant for senior project manager in Melbourne, Australia. The prospective candidate has to report to the deputy general manager (construction) as well as supervise assistant project manager or project administrator.

Prime Activities:

• Make sure that the projects are going on in an well organized manner during the complete project management process from the preliminary brief, right through to the design process and on to fruitful construction management.

• Take responsibility so that the project can be delivered maintaining utmost standard of client satisfaction & quality.
• Create construction programmes to guarantee detailed planning of time, costs and quality of projects.
• Make communication efficiently with all the stakeholders of the project.
• Assign team leadership to your project team and retain commitment to render superior quality work.
• Sustain and manage cost, schedule and quality of project activities to carry on budget, time, and fulfill agreed customer requirements.
• Sell off and manage risk.
• Build relationship with senior staff inside client organizations concerning provision of services within negotiated contractual obligations for a program or projects.
• Retain and improve the company’s reputation in the marketplace.

Duties and responsibilities

Project management
• Concentrate on Residential Projects (Apartment) in Melbourne
• Consultant for team engagement & management.

• Project programming and status reporting
• Generate reports for project
• Evaluate plans & drawings
• Help out department management

Required Qualification:

• Sound local experience (in Melbourne) as a team leader and ability to deal with residential projects (Apartment) among $100M to $500M.
• Minimum 7 years working experience on the position of Project Manager in the local top tier Developer or Builder.
• Sound construction and project management work experience (Both Builder and Developer experience PREFER).

To apply for the post, click on the following link

A position is vacant for Senior Project Manager and Project Manager in construction sector (VIC – Melbourne)

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Arka Roy

7 Prime liabilities of a Civil Site Engineer in a Building Construction Project

A site civil engineer takes lots of responsibilities as per the company’s rules and structure of the project management team. Given below, the complete liabilities of a civil site engineer :-

1. Accomplishment of the project in due course: The key liability of the project management team is to deliver the project in scheduled time. A site civil engineer has also to take this liability as he is the part and parcel of the project management team.

To accomplish a building construction project timely, a project management team has to take responsibility to make a “master Schedule” for the project. In this regard, the project manager should take the sole liability.

It is necessary to create the master schedule on the basis of the company’s rule. Now, the monthly and weekly target of the project will be determined on the basis of master schedule.

If it becomes easier to monitor each construction task on weekly basis, there will be no obstacles for the project to be accomplished in due course.

Therefore, the tasks given below should be undertaken to finish a building construction project in due course –:

• Create master schedule for the project
• Make a monthly plan on the basis of the master schedule
• Arrange weekly target on the basis of monthly target
• Monitor weekly target every day

2. Ensuring Contractor Selection on Time: Lots of tasks should be performed in a building construction project. Such as Civil works, Plumbing works, Electrical works, Painting works, etc.

All of these works should be executed with individual contractors. As for instance, the civil contractor should only perform the civil works like RCC and masonry works. Plumbing contractor performs sanitary and plumbing work and tiles contractors should accomplish the tiles work on a building construction project.

Although, the project manager takes the responsibility for the selection of the contractors, a site civil engineer should also assist the project manager to accelerate the selection process for the diverse work item of the project.

Check the project’s master schedule. When it is required to commence the next work phase, call for the next contractor prior to one month for executing the next task.

As for instance, if planning is made to commence tiles work after one month, enquire for tiles contractor from today.

A site civil engineer should take the liability to make sure the convenient work progress of the project. Therefore, call for desired contractors a month earlier than your master schedule to maintain smooth work progress.

Undertake the following tasks to make sure the selection of contractor on time –

• Study your project’s master schedule
• Determine when you are planning to commence next construction task
• Start enquiring of the contractor a month prior to start the actual task.

3. Ensuring Material Delivery on Time: The civil site engineer is liable for providing construction material on time to maintain the flow of construction work progress devoid of any shortage of materials.

For this purpose, don’t give order for all the necessary materials at a time rather order only those materials which are necessary on immediate basis.

Suppose you are going to develop a 2nd-floor slab and mild steel bar is required for that slab only. But if you give order for Rod for 3rd-floor slab also, a huge amount of money will be blocked unnecessarily which can be utilized for other purpose. It will not be so cost-effective.

So, the order should be given for materials which are only required.

So, the following tasks should be undertaken for making sure the delivery of materials on time – not before the time :-

• Workout the necessary materials for the task to executed next
• Make requisition for the materials. Specify material delivery date on the purchase requisition.
• Dispatch the requisition to purchase department on time. In a company, some times are required for approval of the purchase requisition. In this regard, some formalities are required. So, ensure that lead time is retained for the material delivery.
• Monitor the requisition in order that the delivery date of the materials is not missed out.

To get more information, go through the following link

7 Prime liabilities of a Civil Site Engineer in a Building Construction Project

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Arka Roy