# Mix Design On The Basis Of Dry Condition

Ascertain or Identify Slump Value

The initial step is to identify the lowest and highest limit for slump of concrete that has been utilized. Often the designer identify slump for concrete mix, this is correctly based on some conditions, otherwise if the value of slump is not indicated Table 1 is applied to find out the lowest and highest slump value on the basis of the type of structure.

Note: The value of (Table 1) is dependent on applying vibrator for compaction of concrete, if there is other method for compaction like a tamping by rods or other method add (2 cm) for every selected value from table 1.

Step 2: Ascertain or State Maximum Aggregate Size

Highest Aggregate Size is considered as the most vital data to be ascertained or identified for their mix design. This value is acquired from sieving analysis test result of coarse aggregate. Coarse aggregate must be examined prior to utilize in concrete mixture preparation. This value is accessible even for comprehensive mix design process.

Value of Maximum Aggregate Size must be examined with the following three equations:

(a): Highest Aggregate Size must be identical or lesser than 1/5 (lowest distance among form work side).

(b): Highest Aggregate Size must be identical or lesser than 1/3 (thickness of concrete member).

(c): Highest Aggregate Size must be identical or lesser than 3/4 (slightest distance among reinforcement).

Note: Point (c) is very vital in checking process as if the aggregate size exceeds the spacing of reinforcement while casting, concrete fails to pass the rebar cage. It signifies that passing ability of concrete is considerably reduced.

To read the complete article, visit ge4c.com

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Arka Roy
www.constructioncost.co
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# Different types of foundation and their usefulness

Maximum structures are built with two parts like super structure and sub-structure of the foundation. Super Structure is located over the ground and the other sub-structure of the foundation is located beneath the ground level. Foundation alias footing of a structure associates and transfers the load from the structure to the ground soil. The foundation is developed on the solid ground and it is called as the foundation bed. The foundation transfers the load of the structure and it’s self-weight to the soil with the purpose of keeping the final bearing capacity of the soil under control (the shear failure does not occur) as well as keeping acceptable settlement.

All the structures have foundation at the base that offers the following functionalities:

• To disperse the load of the structure across an extensive bearing area.
• To load the bearing surface equally to get rid of asymmetrical settlement.
• To resist the lateral movement of the supporting material.
• To enhance the strength of the structure all together.

Foundation is based on the following points :-

Foundation is categorized depending on the dispersion of load to the ground into two sub-categories like shallow foundation and deep foundation.

Shallow Foundation

Shallow foundation belongs to the foundations where depth of the foundation remains below the width of the foundation (D < B). Shallow foundations are usually known as spread footing because they transfer the load of the super structure laterally into the ground.

Categorizarion of Shallow Foundation:

Based on the design, the shallow foundation is classified as:

• Wall Footing
• Isolated column or Column Footing
• Combined Footing
• Cantilever (Strap) Footing
• Mat (Raft) Foundation
• Wall Footing

This type of foundation runs consistently along the direction of the wall and facilitates transferring load of the wall into the ground. Wall footing are mostly applicable where transferable loads are small and cost-effective in compact sands and gravels. For this type of foundation, the width remains 2-3 times the width of the wall at ground level. Wall footing is built up with stone, brick, plain or reinforced cement concrete.

Column Footing

Column footing are useful and inexpensive for the depth surpassing 1.5m. For this type of foundation, the base of the column is distended. Column footing comes in the shape of of flat slab and is developed with plain or reinforced concrete.

Combined Footing

Combined footings belong to the foundations which are built in common for two or more columns in a row. It is generally formed if the footing for a column is spreaded outside the property line. It is applicable if the two columns are placed narrowly and the soil on which the structure is developed contains low bearing capacity. The shape of the combined footing appears as rectangular or trapezoidal.

Strap Footing

If an edge footing fails to spread outside the property line, it is connected with the other interior footing through a strap beam. Such footings are defined as strap footing. or sometimes cantilever footing.

Mat Foundation

A mat foundation belongs to a combined footing that covers the whole area below a structure and supports all the walls and columns. It is also called as raft foundation. Mat foundation is mostly suitable for the following reasons:

Permissible bearing pressure is low.

The structure is weighty.

The site is located with highly compressible layer.

The mat foundation is categorized into following types:

Flat slab type.

Flat Slab thickened under column.

Two way beam and slab type.

Flat slab with pedestals.

Rigid frame mat.

Piled mat.

To read the complete article, visit civileblog.com

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Arka Roy
www.constructioncost.co
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# Explore The New Features In Revit 2017 For Improved Architectural Design

This is an exclusive online Revit video tutorial presented by Paul F. Aubin. The tutorial sheds light on new and value-added features in Revit 2017 useful for the architects to create superior architectural design.

All the videos in the course are self-reliant which highlight a single feature or improvement, like the better text editor and global parameters

This revit video focuses on the following topics :-

• How to edit in 3D

• How to apply tags

• Learn to model stairs and railings

• How to perform rendering in Revit 2017

• How to perform with the Family Editor

• How to apply global parameters

• Learn to modify elevation depth

• How to use the new text editor

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Arka Roy
www.bimoutsourcing.com
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# How to apply method of joints for truss analysis

This construction video shows how to examine a plain truss by applying method of joints. The tutorial is divided in two parts.

Method of Joints

The free-body diagram concerning any joint refers to a concurrent force system where the summary of moment is not fruitful. Recall that only two equilibrium equations should have been.

So, in order to entirely resolve for the forces functioning on a joint, a joint should be chosen with merely two unknown forces included. This is continued by choosing a joint that functions with only two members. Any unknown member is accepted as either tension or compression. If the force is opposite in action to that of the direction put on, the negative value is attained. As soon as the forces in one joint are set, their actions on nearby joints are identified. The process is sustained for resolving sequential joints until all members are organized.

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Arka Roy
www.constructioncost.co
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# Top 5 Android Apps In 2016 For Construction Professionals

Recently construction industry experience significant technological advancement. Several mobile based apps are emerged in the market. The civil engineering students as well as civil engineers always look for good android apps to save significant time, to improve accuracy level, precise calculation and complete work in scheduled time.

Given below, detailed information for top 5 android based apps for civil engineers :-

Autodesk® AutoCAD 360 previously known as AutoCAD WS, belongs to the authorized AutoCAD® mobile app. AutoCAD 360 is a user-friendly and free mobile app that can significantly improve the drafting process. It facilitates the users to view, edit, and distribute AutoCAD drawings at all times and elsewhere. There are robust design review and markup tools which can be accessed online and offline to streamline site visits and fieldwork. The app can distribute drawings with others over desktop, web, and mobile devices consistently. Apply the free companion AutoCAD 360 web app to smoothly avail drawings from web browsers. AutoCAD 360 Pro subscription plans will extend the functionality of the app with extra competencies to the jobsite.

2. Frame Design

This app contains some exciting features and specifically intended for civil engineers, mechanical engineers, architects and students who prefer to design 2D frames.

It is possible to input and edit hyper static structures, forces, supports etc through graphics and textures. All the calculations are made instantly.

The app offers the following exclusive features:

• F, T and q (rectangular and triangular) loads
• Fixed and hinge connections at beam ends
• Moment, Shear, Stress, Deflection, Reaction forces and Unity checks
• Imposed deflections
• M, N, V, ux, uz, utot, phi, sigma and unity checks output
• Fixed, hinge and roller supports in any direction
• Profile groups; every group contains its own color
• Import any steel profile or general section from our free Engineering Libraries (EU, UK, AU, US & CA profiles)
• Import dxf files
• Export to our Concrete Design and Steel Design apps
• Share picture

3. Beam Design

This finite element app is specially designed for for civil engineers, mechanical engineers, architects and students to create design for continuous beams.

The users can input and edit hyperstatic beams, forces, supports etc through graphics and textures. The calculations are made evidently in the background devoid of hampering your work and the result is given instantly.

The app offers the following exclusive features:

• F, T and q (rectangular and triangular) loads
• Fixed and hinge connections at beam ends
• Moment, Shear, Stress, Deflection, Reaction forces and Unity checks
• Imposed deflections
• M, N, V, ux, uz, utot, phi, sigma and unity checks output
• Fixed, hinge and roller supports in any direction
• Profile groups; every group contains its own color
• Import any steel profile or general section from our free Engineering Libraries (EU, UK, AU, US & CA profiles)
• Import dxf files
• Export to our Concrete Design and Steel Design apps
• Share picture

4. Floor Plan Creator

This android based is used to generate detailed and perfect floor plans. Any furniture can be included to make interior designing of your home beautiful. Get your floor plan with you to verify if there is sufficient room to accommodate a new furniture.

The app offers the following exclusive features :-

• Predefined room shapes together with free drawing of a room shape through S-Pen, mouse or touch.
• Extensive symbol library with doors, windows, furniture, electrical, fire survey.
• Cloud synchronization to backup automatically and distribute plans among devices (purchased, 3 days free trial)
• Export as image (free with watermark); DXF, SVG (purchased).
• Supports metric and imperial unit systems.

5. GPS Fields Area Measure

This android based construction app includes the following features :-

• Quick area/distance marking
• Smart Marker Mode for accurate pin placement !!!
• Measures saving and editing – Measures grouping and naming
• Undo for all measuring actions
• GPS tracking to walk/drive around boundary/directory to auto measure

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Arka Roy
www.constructioncost.co
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# FreeCPM – A web based, easy to use online scheduling solution

FreeCPM is a web based, free, completely operative and strong CPM scheduling application toward the Construction Industry. This construction application can enhance construction schedule management process. FreeCPM facilitates several project members to access, interact, manage and create project schedules without any difficulty. The users can access FreeCPM through any device and transfer schedule information directly to the jobsite and at the same time transfer updated information directly from the jobsite, in real time.

FreeCPM can reduce project costs and enhance the ROI of any Construction Project

With FreeCPM, the construction team can remain on track by making updates automatically in real time.

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Arka Roy

www.constructioncost.co

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# A position is vacant for Assistant Staff Project Manager – Construction Materials Testing

An award-winning consulting firm that provides geotechnical engineering, construction materials testing and environmental and facilities consulting services and has been ranked as one of the top 100 engineering and environmental firms by ENR, is seeking an assistant staff project manager for construction materials testing.

Duties and Responsibilities:

Mainly perform with management of construction materials testing projects. The candidate has to take liabilities for testing of soils, foundations, reinforced and post-tensioned concrete, masonry, structural steel, fire proofing and asphalt pavement. Besides, there are other project management liabilities which range from application of technical support, day-to-day assessment of field reports, checking progression of project for performance and budgetary conditions, support with collection efforts, planning for proposals and invoicing, participating with project site meetings and providing support with the resolution to technical and administrative problems.

Functionalities:

• Analysis of soils, foundations, reinforced and post-tensioned concrete, masonry, structural steel, fireproofing and asphalt pavement.

• Laboratory tests.

• Day-to-day field reports.

• Project meeting and providing support in project resolutions.

• Scheduling, training and oversight of field technicians.

• Special inspections of structural components.

• Development of proposals.

Qualifications:

• BSCE from an ABET recommended college/university required; knowledge with MS Geotechnical Engineering will be an added advantage.

• 0-2 years working experience with associated field.

• EIT certification desired. Possibility for acquiring a PE license is essential for career development.

• Outstanding oral and written communication skills.

• Interest in project management and the ability to work effectively in teams, with clients, peers and subordinates, as required.

Notes: Please specify your compensation expectations [\$\$/hour] while sending application for this post otherwise your application will be disqualified. This position is non-exempt under FSLA. This position is not eligible for visa sponsorship.

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Arka Roy

www.constructioncost.co

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# Civil Engineering Notes is a useful construction app for Civil Engineers

Civil Engineering Notes is a useful construction app for Civil engineering communities. The app includes various topics related to civil engineering branch which are very useful for civil engineers to improve their knowledge.

The app provides good information for all types of competitive examinations. All the topics in this construction app are narrated in very simple terms. The app provides huge benefits to the newbie engineers as well as advanced civil engineers.

The app shed light on the following topics :-

Construction Technology; Engineering Materials; Construction Planning and Management; Surveying; Railway Engineering; Highway Engineering; Hydrology; Water Resources; Engineering Mechanics; Kinematics and Kinetics; Strength of Materials; Structural Analysis; Structural Steel Design; Design of Concrete and Masonry Structures; Cantilever and Counter fort type retaining walls; Fluid Mechanics; Dimensional Analysis and Similitude; Laminar Flow; Open channel flow; Boundary layer; Hydraulic Machines and Hydropower; Soil Type and structure; Compressibility and consolidation concept; Compaction of soil; Sewerage systems, etc.

There are various illustrations supported with diagrams so that the users can understand the app in a better manner. Besides, graphical demonstration, there are various mathematical formulas.

The app will facilitate the civil engineers to efficiently design, build and maintain the physical and naturally developed environment together with projects like bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings.

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Arka Roy

www.constructioncost.co

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# Build a concrete slab footing of modern buildings

A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings. Horizontal slabs of steel reinforced concrete, typically between 100 and 500 millimeters thick, are most often used to construct floors and ceilings, while thinner slabs are also used for exterior paving.

In many domestic and industrial buildings a thick concrete slab, supported on foundations or directly on the subsoil, is used to construct the ground floor of a building. In high rise buildings and skyscrapers, thinner, pre-cast concrete slabs are slung between the steel frames to form the floors and ceilings on each level.

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Arka Roy

www.constructioncost.co

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# Some useful construction tips for quality control of concrete throughout construction

This article is extracted from an exclusive construction article written by KAUSHAL KISHORE, well know consulting material engineer, and RAKESH SHARMA, Vice President Project of M/s Supertech Limited.

If the concrete is contacted with superplasticizer, it behaves the same way when the amount and type of sulfate included with the clinker. The rheological and setting Behavior are modified on the basis of whether the sulfate is included as anhydrite, hemihydrates, or gypsum. The variations are described by the various rates of dissolution of these sulfates.

It is crucial to keep in mind that all admixtures relevant to the similar generic type may not behave in the same way in concrete due to the differences in the molecular weight, cautions involved with them, chain length, etc. Correspondingly, the similar type of cement generically is dissimilar in mineral, alkali and sulfate contents, and fineness.

As per IS: 456-2000, admixture should not weaken strength of concrete neither mix with the component to develop injurious compounds as well as not enhance the chance for the growth of corrosion in reinforcement. The feasibility, compressive strength and the slump loss of concrete with or without the application of admixtures should be determined throughout the trial mixes prior to applying admixtures. If two or additional admixtures are applied all together in the similar concrete mix, data should be captured to evaluate their interaction as well as certify their compatibility.

The admixtures, the materials for forming concrete and their compatibility can influence the performance of concrete admixture along with superplasticizers. It is essential to analyze concrete admixtures so that it can be exactly used with the concrete to transform materials and mix proportions for being used on the work under proper field conditions.

There four primary components in Cement which range C3s, C2s, C3A and C4AF. Besides, there lots of negligible oxides like K2O and Na2O, MgO and SO3. These are supplied by gypsum and included in the final phases of cement manufacture as a set regulator. If there exist less C3A, superplasticizer would be get immersed in higher amount on C3S and C2S, causing a drop in the strength development.

To read the complete article, go through the following ink

www.engineeringcivil.com/concrete-quality-control-during-construction.html

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