Types and properties of bricks

Bricks is produced from well clay molding, that is dried and then burnt. The size of the brick varies from 90 mm × 90 mm × 90 mm and 190 mm × 90 mm × 40 mm. With mortar joints, the size of brick varies from 200 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm and 200 mm × 100 mm × 50 mm.

Types of Bricks: Bricks are categorized as –

(i) Building bricks, (ii) Paving bricks, (iii) Fire bricks, (iv) Special bricks.

Properties of Bricks: The standard quality bricks should contain the following properties –

(i) Colour: The color should have been identical and clear.

(ii) Shape: Shape of the bricks should have been sharp and genuine rectangular angles.

(iii) Size: There should be standard dimensions for bricks with adherence to codes.

(iv) Texture: A standard brick should contain a fine, solid and consistent texture. They should be free from fissures, cavities, loose grit and unburned lime.

(v) Virtue: If the brick is hit with another brick, there should be a metal sound.

(vi) Hardness: If scratches are made with finger on a brick, there should not be any mark on the brick.

(vii) Strength: The breaking strength of brick should not be under 3.5 N / mm2. A field test is conducted to check the strength by dropping the brick from a height of 0.9 m to 1.0 mm on a hard surface. If the brick has good strength, the stone should not be broken into pieces.

(viii) Water absorption: Once the brick is drowned in water for 24 hours, the water absorption rate should not exceed 20 percent by weight. For class I bricks, this limit remains 15 percent.

(ix) Efficiency: There should not be any white patches in bricks when they are drenched in water for 24 hours and then allowed to dry in the shade. White stains may appear because of the existence of sulfate of calcium, magnesium and potassium. They retain masonry in wet and humid conditions.

(x) Thermal conductivity: Bricks should contain low thermal conductivity, so the buildings developed with bricks should have cold temperature in summer and warm temperature in winter.

(xi) Sound insulation: Bigger bricks have poor sound insulators whereas light and hollow bricks have superior sound insulation.

(xii) Fire resistance: Normally, the fire resistance capacity of brick is good. Actually, bricks are utilized to trap steel columns to safeguard them from fire.

Types and properties of bricks

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Arka Roy


How to start marking for foundation

This construction video provides detailed guidelines on foundation marking. In the video, the plan of building is given for living room and kitchen room. The center line marking is also provided with 6 numbers of columns. Initially, you have to set the base point as it is very crucial for marking. After that, a base line is arranged from that base point with a thread for fixing the second point.

The centre line of the wall perpendicular to the long wall, is marked by making a proper angle. Right angle is arranged by creating triangles with sides 3,4 and 5units long. If we set the two sides of the right angles triangle to be 3 m, and 4 m, then the third side i.e. the hypotenuse is assumed at 5 m. A steel tape should be used to fix all the dimensions.

The formula is used here as √(L2+B2).

The right angle can be fixed by applying a theodolite. This instrument is very useful in fixing acute or obtuse angles. Small right-angled Projections are generally laid out with mason’s square.

Proper marking of the foundations is specifically important for new walls to make sure that the foundations contain the exact size and are in the perfect position to bear the load of the wall. Good foundations are essential to make sure that no movement can occur because any movement can lead to cracks and problems in the building that is supported with the foundation.

To get the complete instructions, watch the following video.

How to start marking for foundation

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Arka Roy

Details of tendering method in construction

Tendering: Tendering stands for the procedure of making an offer, bid or proposal, or revealing interest in providing respond to an invitation or request for tender. With tendering, interested contractors can send their bids to execute certain packages of construction work.

Organization will look for other businesses to make response to a specific requirement, like the supply of goods and services, and will opt for an offer or tender that fulfill their requirements and offers the best value for money.

Types of tendering:

a. Competitive tendering
Open – Selective

b. Negotiated tendering
Serial – Nominative

Open tender: Open tendering is the primary tendering procedures which are implemented by both the government and private sector. The client publishes the tender offer in the local newspaper as an advertisement. It provides the detail and essential information concerning the projected works as well as invite interested contractor to tender. In legal term such tender recognizes constitute invitation to treat, a simple request made by the employer for appropriate contractor to tender their bids or offers.

If the pre-requisite to tendering on the form of possession of the obligatory registration has been recognized in the tender notice, then the advertisement is conducted to only that specific class of the public with the stated qualifications. With the purpose of decreasing the number of enquirers, earnest money is paid in (for private project).

Unless the receipt of a bone fide tender is chosen then it will be refunded. The price is very crucial in taking the decision on which the tender or bid should be received. The benefits and drawbacks of open tender are described below:

a. It empowers any concerned contractor to submit tender. So, it provides scope for an unfamiliar contractor to bid for the work.
b. The tender list becomes lengthy because too many contractors submit their tender for one job.

c. It facilitates the tender list to be created neutrally. Client will acquire the bargain possible. No favor should be provided for choosing any contractor.
d. Wasteful application of source.
e. Make sure that there is good competition not obliged to accept any offers.
f. The interrogation can be made for public accountability may be questioned if the lowest offer is not accepted.
g. Conventional method of tendering, recognized to all segment of the engineering and construction industry.
h. The reputable and established contractor is not allowed unless they are compelled because of the shortage of water.

Selective tender: The objective of selective tendering is to deal with the constraints of the open tendering process. Under this method, a short list of contractor is made and they are invited to present tenders. The objective of the elective tendering is to make the quality of the received bids better, to make sure that contractors who have required experience and skill get the scope to present the required bids, owning to urgency work involved, for certain reasons of the employer, as for instance security reasons in government projects, Etc. and to make the tendering procedure more simplified and reduce the burden on the associated parties. Such list is made by the suggestions from the Client’s professional adviser having knowledge of the Contractors undertaking the work earlier or advertisement via the newspaper (pre-qualification).

To get more information, go through the following page basiccivilengineering.com

Details of tendering method in construction

Published By
Arka Roy

Structural Design of ASDIP Concrete

ASDIP Concrete is a set of modules which are fully devoted for the design of concrete members like beams, columns and walls depended on the newest ACI 318 specifications.

These specifications can explain the time wasting calculations in any type of structural engineering office; while this ASDIP Concrete 3.1.7v is developed by ASDIP Structural Software and can perform well with Windows. This is a trial version and the file size of the downloaded version is about 4.85 MB.

Here is the list of things which are found under this ASDIP Concrete:

Modules of ASDIP Concrete: This concrete is a unified, merged system that has a combination of flexibility of a fill-in-the-blanks format with the power of Windows Forms and both of them can easily develop either an optimal design or a fast investigation. ASDIP Concrete uses a screen with tabbed pages to enter the users’ data directly onto the forms and allow seeing the results instantly which helps to control the design process, to get the detailed results and the graphics easily.

User Interface: The software uses pull-down menus, dialog boxes and in-field editing as the primary user interface, all these components help to manage and control the difficult design algorithms easily and transparently to the end user in a simple way. It also approves the input data to stop wrong format and users can automatically develop their design with the text-with-values output messages which are updated with every change.

Project Manager: It is a very important thing in the ASDIP Concrete System which takes care of both the calculations and files management from where anyone can create, copy, delete or print calculations, create and save projects and arrange the work.

Reports: The concrete creates high quality previously formatted reports with particular information of any design and optimize the design with the graphical interface, then print preview the results and finally print the report.

Trial Limitations:

• Report- Print disabled
• File- Save Disabled
• 15 day assessment period

ASDIP Concrete has the design of following types of concrete elements:

• Concrete Columns: The design of a concrete column under the action of axial loads and bending moments; while this module can calculates the enlarged moments for slimness of ASCE 7 load combinations and creates the column strength interaction diagram.

• Concrete Beams: The design of a concrete multi-span regular beam under the action of uniform and concreted loads while this module specifically calculate the bending and crop strength for various types of beams and load combinations per ASCE 7.
• Bearing Walls: The design of a concrete wall under the action of vertical and out-of-plane literal loads; the module calculates the magnified moments for slimness of ASCE 7 load combinations and creates the wall strength interaction plan.

Here is some similar software of ASDIP Concrete:

ASDIP Foundation: It is a set of modules certainly dedicated to the design of concrete footings depended on the newest IBC/ACI 318 specifications that simplify calculations of the wasted time in any structural engineering office.
ASDIP Retain: It is a set of modules dedicated fully to the design of retaining walls depended on the new IBC/ACI 318 specifications to simplify the time consuming calculation in any structural engineering office.
ASDIP Steel: It is a set of modules dedicated fully to the design of structural steel members depended on the new AISC 360 for simplifying the time taking calculations in any structural engineering office.
ASDIP: It is a 13-module structural ser with a board of design solutions for new structural engineers.
Advance Concrete: It is totally designed for engineers and structural draftsmen for total and easy to use software fully integrated into AutoCAD.
ASTRUTTIE: It is a strut-tie model design software for concrete members with disturbed stress regions.

Download Free 15 days Trial: asdipsoft.com/asdip-concrete

Structural Design of ASDIP Concrete

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Arka Roy

How to design any one way simply supported slab

In this construction video tutorial, you will learn how to create the design of one way slab (simply supported slab) that is standing on the masonry wall.

You will also gather information on all checks for making design of the slab.

The requirements and materials of the slab are given below :-

Clear span = 3m
Live load = 4000 N/m2
M20 concrete and fe 415 steel are used here.

The calculation is made on the following dimensions :-

A bearing of 120 mm is provided at each end. The distance among centers of bearing = 3+0.12 = 3.12 m

Necessary effective depth = Span/20 x modification factor
= 3120/20 x 1.40 = 112 mm

The bars with 8 mm diameter are arranged with clear cover of 15 mm.
Effective cover = 15 + 4 = 19 mm

Overall necessary depth = 112 + 19 = 131 mm

It is necessary to arrange an overall depth of 135 mm

So, effective depth = 135-19 = 116 mm

The Dead load of the slab will be calculated as follow :-
25 x 135 = 3375 N/m2 (floor finished with C20 mm).

Live load = 4000 N/m2
Therefore, total load = 7855 N/m2
Factor load = Wµ = 1.50 x 7855 = 11782.5 N/m2

To get more details, go through the following video tutorial.

How to design any one way simply supported slab

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Arka Roy

How to measure prying force in bolted connection

This is another useful construction tutorial from Dr. Chirag Patel. In this video, you will learn how to make detail measurement for “Prying Force” in bolted steel structural connection as well as remove it’s effect.

In a tension or hanger connection, the operative load creates tension in the bolts and the bolts are designed as tension members. If the connected plate is admissible to deform, supplementary tensile forces known as prying forces are developed in the bolts.

In this video example is given for verifying the exact capacity of a D hanger connection based on the following dimension :-

Bolt Diameter = 30 mm
Bolt Grade = 4.6

Dimension of end plate = 230 x 150 mm
Thickness of T-flange = 32 mm

The connection will not collapse if the tension capacity is higher than total load. Here, tension capacity is taken as 200 kN.

To learn the detail calculation process, go through the following video tutorial.

How to measure prying force in bolted connection

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Arka Roy

The role of water in concrete

Water Cement Ratio signifies the ratio among the weight of water to the weight of cement applied in concrete mix.

Generally, water cement ratio remains under 0.4 to 0.6 with adherence to IS Code 10262 (2009) for nominal mix (M10, M15 …. M25)

The strength of concrete is directly impacted by the water cement ratio. It enhances the strength if employed in perfect ratio and if the ratio is improper, the strength will be reduced.

The importance of Water in Concrete

Concrete refers to a macro content. It comprises of micro constituents like cement, sand, fine aggregate & Coarse aggregate. With the purpose of obtaining high strength concrete to resist the desired compressive strength, it is required to set exact ratio of admixture to unite these materials.

The role of water is important here to accelerate this chemical process by adding 23%-25% of the cement volume. It produces 15% of water cement paste also called gel to fill the voids in the concrete.

Impact of too much water in concrete: If additional water is added more than the permissible limit of 23%, the strength of concrete will be significantly affected.

If the task of adding water is continued to improve the workability then the concrete contains lots of fluid materials where the aggregates will settle down. As soon as the water is evaporated it puts down lots of voids in concrete which influences the concrete strength.

But if the guidelines are followed to retain the strength of the concrete then it will change the concrete workability and makes it difficult to manage and place them.

Workability signifies the capacity of concrete to manage, convey and place devoid of any segregation. The concrete becomes perfectly workable if it can be easily dealt with, placed and transported devoid of any segregation at the time of being placed in construction site.

For this purpose, plasticisers & superplasticizers are utilized to enhance the workability by keeping the W/C Ratio unchanged.

In order to know how to work out water cement ratio, go through the following construction article www.civilology.com

The role of water in concrete

Published By
Arka Roy


Some useful notes on steel structure

Sami Ullah, the eminent engineer, presents another useful video tutorial for civil engineering students. This video provides detail information on steel structures.

Standard bar splices (lapping length for the steel) for tension member applicable to all members :-

For nos #3, 4 and 5 bars splice length is = 12 inches

For no #6 bar splice length = 22 inches

For no #8 splice length = 40 inches

General notes:

All the positive (bottom) reinforcement is demonstrated as solid lines in the drawing.

All the negative (top) reinforcement as a dashed alias broken line in the drawing.

Clear cover for slab = 0.75 inches

Clear cover for beam = 1.5 inches

Clear cover for column = 1.5 inches

Clear cover for foundation = 2.5 inches

The applied concrete should contain a minimum 28 day’s cylinder crushing strength of 3000 psi.

Splice length of steel for M20 concrete :-

Slab = 60d
Column = 45d
Beam = 60d

Here, d denotes dia of steel that is utilized in a slab.

To get more details, watch the following video tutorial.

Some useful notes on steel structure

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Arka Roy

Some useful tips to work out the quantities of tiles for setting up tiles floor

If it is required to plan or set up your individual tile floor or just estimate the materials for budget purpose, you have to find out the quantities of tiles as per your need.

By using a measuring tape and some simple math, it is possible to calculate the quantities of tiles as well as total cost of the project.

For this purpose, you require the followings :-

• Paper

• Pen or pencil

• Measuring tape

• Calculator (optional)

The steps should be undertaken to determine the tiles quantities.

• Step 1

• Work out the length of one side of the room. For any wall project, calculate the length of the wall directing up and down.

• Step 2

• Work out the length of the other side of the room. For any wall project, calculate the length of the wall directing from left to right.

• Step 3

• Multiply the two measurements. Multiplying the length with the width will determine the square footage of the project area. As for instance, if the length of the room is 12 feet and width is 10 feet, then multiply 12 x 10. The square footage of this room will become 120 square feet.

• Step 4

• Translate the square footage to the amount of tile you need. Tile is generally found in boxes, and it is necessary to purchase the whole box. Divide the total square footage of the room with the total square footage of the tile in the box. Suppose, each box comprises of 10 square feet of tile. Therefore, for 120 square footage area, 10 will be 12 times in 120 and it is essential to purchase minimum 12 boxes.

• Step 5

• Calculate the average for your requirements. You should never purchase just the amount of tile you require, as you should require a little extra for cuts, waste, breaks, and mistakes. Multiply the square footage of the room by 10%, then include this amount to the total square of the room. This is the total amount of square footage that should have been purchase. As for example, 10 x 120 = 12, and 120 + 12 = 122. So, 122 square feet of tile will be required.

When the style or color is suspended and it is required to substitute a broken tile or two, you will require extras on hand for repairing purpose. For this purpose, you have to purchase extras. If extras are not purchased, then the entire floor should have been substituted.

Some useful tips to work out the quantities of tiles for setting up tiles floor

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Arka Roy

How to work the volume of concrete in a retaining wall

This construction video will provide some useful tips on computing the volume of concrete for retaining wall.

Retaining wall is defined as a rigid wall that is designed and constructed to withstand lateral pressure of liquid, earth filling, sand or other coarse materials which it is holding back.

Suppose, a retaining wall is segregated into two sections, section A is taken as base slab and section B is taken as the stem of retaining wall.

Therefore, the volume of retaining wall is determined with the following formula :-

Volume of retaining wall = Volume of base slab + Volume of Stem

Volume of base slab = length x breadth x height

= 10 x 3 x 0.2 (after converting 200 mm to meter) = 6m3

As the stem is a trapezoid, the following formula is used to calculate it’s volume :-

Volume of stem = [{a+b)/2} x h] x l

After putting the values, we get :-

= [{(0.5 + 0.2)/2} x 3] x 10 = 21m3

Therefore, total volume of retaining wall = 6 + 21 = 27m3

Therefore, the volume of concrete for the retaining wall = 27m3

If the retaining wall is segregated into three parts like part A, part B and part C. Part A is taken as the base slab, part B is taken as the stem and part C is taken as the counterfort of the retaining wall.

Therefore, the volume of retaining wall = Volume of base slab + volume of stem + volume of counterfort

= Volume of A + Volume of B + Volume of C

To learn the remaining calculation process, go through the following video tutorial.

How to work the volume of concrete in a retaining wall

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Arka Roy