Types of pile foundations and their usages

There exist three types of construction piles foundations which range from driven piles, Cast-in-situ piles and Driven and cast-in-situ piles.

Driven Pile Foundations: Driven pile foundations are formed with concrete, steel or timber. These piles have to pass through prefabrication process prior to set up at the construction site. Driven piles are known as concrete when these are created with concrete. These piles are possessed through a pile hammer.

When driven piles are consumed with the granular soils, the correspond volume of soil is dislocated. This allows shrinkage of soil all over the sides of piles as well as the compression of soil. The piles which condense the soil alongside, it is known as compaction pile. This compression of soil enhances its bearing capability.

Saturated silty soils and cohesive soils contain inferior drainage capacity. As a result, these soils are not compressed once driven piles are drilled over it. The water must be discharged for the soil chosen to be compressed. So stresses are expanded beside the piles and must be transmitted through pore water only. The outcome will be enhancing the pore water pressure and reducing the bearing capability of the soil.

Cast-in-situ Pile Foundations: Cast-in-situ piles refer to concrete pile. These piles are created with drilling holes in the ground following the necessary depth and then the hole is filled up with concrete. If required, reinforcements are also utilized in the concrete. These piles consist of small diameter correspond to drilled piers.

Cast-in-situ piles denote straight bored piles or having one or more bulbs at intervals which have to be casted. The piles having one or more bulbs are recognized as under-reamed piles.

Driven and Cast-in-situ Piles: Driven and cast-in-situ piles provide same benefits provided by both driven and cast-in-situ piles. The process for setting up a driven and cast-in-situ pile is given below :-

A steel shell of diameter of pile is driven into the ground through a mandrel placed into the shell. Once the shell is driven, the mandrel is separated and concrete is discharged in the shell.

The shell is formed with corrugated and reinforced lean sheet steel (mono-tube piles) or pipes (Armco welded pipes or common seamless pipes). These types of piles are described as the shell type piles.

To form the shell-less type, the shell is removed once the concrete is arranged. Considering both the types of piles, the bottom of the shell is locked by a conical tip that can be disconnected from the shell. A broaden bulb may be created in both types of piles by driving the concrete beyond the shell. Franki piles belong to this type. Sometimes, the shell will be remained in place and the tube is concreted. The extensive use of this type of pile can be found in piling over water.

There exist three types of construction piles foundations which range from driven piles, Cast-in-situ piles and Driven and cast-in-situ piles.

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Published By.

Arka Roy

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How to create footing design through ROBOT Millennium, the powerful Robot structural design software

The following construction video shows how to apply Robot Millennium, a powerful Robot Structural Professional Analysis and Design software for computing the footing.

Several structural engineers from all through the globe use ROBOT Millennium for its consistency as well as user-friendliness.

The software provides comprehensive structural analysis solution that involves frame analysis, FEM plates, shells and solid elements, as well as code checks, dynamic analysis, cables and both geometric and nonlinear analysis and various other superior features.

The simple GUI facilitates the user to resolve complicated structures instantly and precisely.

Watch the following online demonstration.

Download Robot Structural Analysis Free Trial

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Published By

Arka Roy

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Types of pile foundations and their usages

There exist three types of construction piles foundations which range from driven piles, Cast-in-situ piles and Driven and cast-in-situ piles.

Driven Pile Foundations: Driven pile foundations are formed with concrete, steel or timber. These piles have to pass through prefabrication process prior to set up at the construction site. Driven piles are known as concrete when these are created with concrete. These piles are possessed through a pile hammer.

When driven piles are consumed with the granular soils, the correspond volume of soil is dislocated. This allows shrinkage of soil all over the sides of piles as well as the compression of soil. The piles which condense the soil alongside, it is known as compaction pile. This compression of soil enhances its bearing capability.

Saturated silty soils and cohesive soils contain inferior drainage capacity. As a result, these soils are not compressed once driven piles are drilled over it. The water must be discharged for the soil chosen to be compressed. So stresses are expanded beside the piles and must be transmitted through pore water only. The outcome will be enhancing the pore water pressure and reducing the bearing capability of the soil.

Cast-in-situ Pile Foundations: Cast-in-situ piles refer to concrete pile. These piles are created with drilling holes in the ground following the necessary depth and then the hole is filled up with concrete. If required, reinforcements are also utilized in the concrete. These piles consist of small diameter correspond to drilled piers.

Cast-in-situ piles denote straight bored piles or having one or more bulbs at intervals which have to be casted. The piles having one or more bulbs are recognized as under-reamed piles.

Driven and Cast-in-situ Piles: Driven and cast-in-situ piles provide same benefits provided by both driven and cast-in-situ piles. The process for setting up a driven and cast-in-situ pile is given below :-

A steel shell of diameter of pile is driven into the ground through a mandrel placed into the shell. Once the shell is driven, the mandrel is separated and concrete is discharged in the shell.

The shell is formed with corrugated and reinforced lean sheet steel (mono-tube piles) or pipes (Armco welded pipes or common seamless pipes). These types of piles are described as the shell type piles.

To form the shell-less type, the shell is removed once the concrete is arranged. Considering both the types of piles, the bottom of the shell is locked by a conical tip that can be disconnected from the shell. A broaden bulb may be created in both types of piles by driving the concrete beyond the shell. Franki piles belong to this type. Sometimes, the shell will be remained in place and the tube is concreted. The extensive use of this type of pile can be found in piling over water.

There exist three types of construction piles foundations which range from driven piles, Cast-in-situ piles and Driven and cast-in-situ piles.

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Published By

Arka Roy

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Formwork for Concrete Structures – An exclusive e-book for construction engineers

Garold (Gary) Oberlender and Robert Peurifoy have jointly published an exclusive e-book alias Formwork for Concrete Structures. The book contains total 544 pages and available in kindle edition. This construction book is very useful for construction engineers, civil and structural engineers, architects, and contractors as it briefly explains the formwork design concept, materials and methods for concrete structures.

Formwork for Concrete Structures (Fourth Edition) presents most up-to-date information on designing and producing formwork and temporary structures while the construction progression is going on. The book is specifically created with the newest structural design proposed by the National Design Specification (NDS 2005). The book highlights the latest improvements toward materials, money- and energy-saving policies, safety standards, OSHA regulations, and dimensional tolerances. The latest sample problems demonstrate realistic applications for working out loads and stresses. This book also contains most updated summary tables and equations as well as a directory of suppliers.

The readers will get current information on forms for footings, walls, columns, beams and floor slabs, concrete floor sytems, thinshell roof slabs, architectural concrete, concrete bridge decks, flying decks, and much more.

The book covers the following topics :-

  • Economy of formwork
  • Pressure of concrete on formwork
  • Properties of form material
  • Form design
  • Shores and scaffolding
  • Failures of formwork
  • Forms for footings, walls, and columns
  • Forms for beams and floor slabs
  • Patented forms for concrete floor systems
  • Forms for thin-shell roof slabs
  • Forms for architectural concrete
  • Slipforms
  • Forms for concrete bridge decks
  • Flying deck forms

The book is available in Amazon

Formwork for Concrete Structures

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Published By

Arka Roy

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A position is vacant for Assistant Quantity Surveyor in North West England

Balfour Beatty Major Projects is planning to employ some Assistant Quantity Surveyors for a nuclear project in Cumbria. The job responsibilities will be supporting the commercial/quantity surveying team concerning commercial & contractual control as well as the co-ordination of the endeavors of all parties associated with carrying out of a particular project or series of projects.

Job responsibilities:-

  • Perform the tasks entrusted by the various members of the Commercial/quantity surveying team like measurement for valuations.
  • Make sure that all duties are executed in keeping the standard company HSE processes and work instructions.
  • Help in administering and preserving the contract cost reporting system as ordered by the line manager.
  • Get cash flows ready for payments in and out.
  • Help in creating the perfect prediction of project cost to completion and final value.
  • Facilitating the sub-contract tender procedure by providing support for creating the sub-contract documentation.
  • Produce payment certificates for sub-contract work.
  • Help in creating interim applications for payment.
  • Help in making the valuation of variations.
  • Help in making valuations and claims and make sure that these are compliant with appropriate records.
  • Help in creating the precise monthly reporting of cost and value on the project(s) following the Company’s reporting system.
  • Recognize possible risk and opportunities and elevate these as correct.
  • Execute assigned tasks in order to abide by the BMS and Group Minimum Commercial Expectations
If necessary with the particular project, help in applying BIM to support the development observance process, offer commercial reporting and include information to promote change management, variations orders and support all sub-contractors/supply chain members for incorporating subcontractor’s work with BIM.
  • Live the Balfour Beatty Values.
  • Provide a persistent focus on Zero Harm.
  • Support the delivery of the CSUK Sustainability 2020 roadmap.

Qualifications: Prior knowledge in quantity surveying is necessary. Membership of a related professional body and/or working towards a pertinent professional qualification is desired (RICS/CIOB/RIBA/ICE/CIBSE). A legitimate CSCS card is needed.

Individuals should have the following expertise:

  • Well versed with the tendering process.
  • Familiar with the several contract forms generally applied in the construction industry.
  • Sound knowledge with commercial management of Construction projects and the construction process in general.
  • Good knowledge with sub-contracting principles.
  • Knowledge for providing and acquiring Insurance, Bonds and Warranties.
  • Expertise with administration, writing, numeracy, IT and MS Office.
  • Capability for working in tandem with team and independently.
  • Hardworking ability to work efficiently under pressure and rigid deadlines.
  • Excellent negotiation skills with both internal and external customers.

Apply online

Balfour Beatty Major Projects is planning to employ some Assistant Quantity Surveyors for a nuclear project in Cumbria.

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Published By

Arka Roy

www.quantity-takeoff.com

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JUSTIN VANDERBRINK SAYS HOW BEST ESTIMATE CAN BE DONE FOR CLIENTS

The acute estimate of cost or rendering the perfect service is desired to any customer. Whatever would your business, you may run construction companies or a hospital administration, no customer likes financial surprises.

The client may be setting up brand new eatery, restructuring age-old house, the role of a cost estimator is to provide him best possible cost data. Justin Vanderbrink, vice president of Rives E. Worrell Company shared his write up tobusinessinsavannah.com . We are going to present you an excerpt.

The work of cost estimating needs such a level of honesty and integrity. This should be the Unique Selling Proposition (USP) of estimating service.

The 4D construction and planning

Sometime what it call a ‘napkin sketch’ which we term as the rough outline of the project in the premature stage. This sketch includes :

1. Square footage,
2. Number of floors
3. Building Height
4. Materials
5. Finishes
6. System

It is experienced that many construction estimating firms are doing it haphazardly, just copying and pasting it elsewhere in accordance with the basic knowledge or any previous calculation.

There are many estimating process which is based on speculations and ifs and buts. This extra-ordinary process gives a clear-cut process that gives estimate to the clients.

Now there is no more any guess work. This new process is certainly not depending on assumption. This is basically in-house developed Art to Science Estimating (ASE) system with the historical cost per square foot. The ASE system provides a complete line-item theoretical and conceptual estimate by drawing upon the cost history developed from several billion dollars worth of projects completed.

The system can take access data from the completed projects as per those were groupified. It can be healthcare, educational, office, courthouse, correctional or research and it can break down unit pricing specific to sub-group. Every cost is updated quarterly, taking into account variations based on local market conditions.

Additionally, the cost index of ASE always helps to refine the price and it gives an exact estimation by taking in account of 14 different material and labor component. Here the client can feel the difference. Most of the firms calculate the estimate only using six elements.

It is our principle that the estimators should not waist time and should not make clients wait. The firms such as Rives E. Worrell Co., a JE Dunn Construction Company looks after these responsibilities at the highest consideration. It is necessary to meet the client for discussing various options and settle on the costs.

It has to be remembered that the client is king. The companies should provide best support to the client’s help.

What are the aspects that clients generally get benefit from:- 

1. Accuracy of estimation
2. Transparency
3. Well developed risk management (Mainly during early stages of the project when many variables are not yet clear)
4. Time savings
5. Additional Clarification
6. Flexibility throughout the project period.

If these things can be sorted out in time, then only the client can work with self-confidence and place him/herself in a decision making position during the design process. The estimation can be done with great accuracy.

Success and accomplishment is guaranteed in any trade with precise and exact cost estimation. Good cost estimation is not a magic. It cannot be done instantly. An old-hand estimator like Justin Vanderbrink describes the best process here.

It just needs to have a little amount of meticulousness, concentration to detail, knowledge with similar projects and a readiness to invest the time and resources to assist clients clear all their doubts long before the project starts.

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Published By

Arka Roy

www.costestimationjournal.quantity-takeoff.com

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Download Construction Cost Estimating Spreadsheet

This cost estimating sheet is useful for computing & managing building cost while creating structure for a new home as well as home & room addition and restoration. This estimating spreadsheet contains its individual free software.

The spreadsheet is accurately printable on a 8 ½ x 11 sheet. The categories provided in the description column of this spreadsheet can be customized. This construction cost estimating spreadsheet can save time, money and cost escalation.

Download Construction Cost Estimating Spreadsheet

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Published By

Arka Roy

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5 QUESTIONS TO INQUIRE BEFORE YOU CHOOSE A ROOF

One should not always speed up while come to the final opinion on repairing the perfect roof. It can be a newest purchase or just a substitution of the existing one, no matter what the situation is, one ought to think vigorously before making a buy. To select the perfect roof for your use, you first must learn about what purpose it will serve; sooner or later, it will help you to make a decision. Even after you are at confusion of what must be the basic reason to choose the perfect piece, go through our suggestion for a pertinent solution.

Building construction

An important feature to look for while deciding on the roof is the structure of the building. The plan or layout of a particular construction for which you are looking for a roof might give you a fine idea about what really should be the thing to invest in.

Another thing to keep in mind about the building is its maintenance. If it is used as office with a workforce operating 24/7 the maintenance costs might be a little higher, although when it is more of a branded house the maintenance cost might be less. So make sure you study the usage beforehand.

Roof according to locality

It is an important thing to consider before choosing the roof. For different climates manufacturers have made different types of roof made out of various materials that will serve best for various climate types. For hotter places white roofs will be a good choice whereas a place having leakage problems slanted roofs are stated ideal.

Location of building

The exact location of your building that needs roofing is also an important point to keep in mind. The directions towards which the house is facing, the direction of winds, and all these factors matter a lot to ensure longevity of the roofs. Different materials works differently at given climate conditions, choose the best for hot places, and look for the ones that gives better safety during the rains.

Choosing the membrane

Membrane roofing can make leave people in utter confusion. If you are not well aware of the consequences or advantages of membrane roofing, it’s better to get an overall idea from the contractors. Get a clear idea of thermosets will be useful or you should invest in bitumens.

Budgeting

An important aspect is obviously the cost of the product. Who doesn’t want to make the roof look beautiful, but one must find out ways to find the best roofing option without investing an enormous amount. Do proper research on the height and thickness and the material the contractors are using, get the market rate and do some negotiations to settle in a pocket friendly rate.

One should not always speed up while come to the final opinion on repairing the perfect roof.
Image Courtesy: onartc.wordpress.com

Reference:- seekyt.com

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Published By

Arka Roy

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IS IT TIMBER OR STEEL OR CONCRETE? WHAT WOULD BE THE BEST IN USE?

The most popular and common construction structural material Timber, Steel and Concrete has their own pros and cons. But the industry experts have also their own opinion about it. Sourceable.net has come up with great article published by Justin McGar. We have brought you an excerpt.

Timber

The chief executive of the timber development association Andrew Dunn opines, Timber has no such disadvantages but sometime creation of specific design may lead to be a huge design challenge.

The qualities of timber are well recognize and predictable now. People are started to believe that fear of fire or durability is no longer existed.

The timber use determined by its structural type, location and service life – but generally it is very lightweight, flexible of offsite manufacturing and cost effective.

Its main market is in short residential buildings but there is a rising interest in the mid-rise sector for apartments, office buildings as well as school buildings.

The Pitch: The timber’s load per unit weight to strengthen concrete and steel structure shows the high structural efficiency. Many timbers are either physically hard-wearing or can be easily treated to make very hard-wearing.

Wood with energy from the sun and carbon engrossed from the air (from the COin the air). Half the dry mass of timber is carbon engrossed from the air.

Timber used inside provides a healthier environment for dweller as it helps maintain a better relative humidity. The enormous preponderance of structural timber is sourced from sustainably managed forests and plantations.

The Treet or ‘the tree’ (in picture) shows how far timber has come. A 14-storey (49-metre) apartment building in Bergen designed to comply with the Passivhaus sustainability standard. When completed it will be the tallest modern timber apartment structure in the world.

Concrete

The Concrete has been used for structures since Ancient Greece and Rome. Marianne Fourie of the International Federation for Structural Concrete believes   technological development and modernism over the centuries have polished its use. The structural concrete today permits engineers and architects to design, plan and achieve outstanding buildings that are as huge as they can be artistic. The advancement has also led to the more extensive use of pre-cast concrete, which presents great benefits of speed and cost of construction.

In the bigger edifices, such as tall buildings and bridges, nothing can be comparable to concrete. There are immense chances to add other tough materials to the concrete. The structural concrete is not only used in combination with other resources but also fit in with them as with fibre-reinforced concrete. It has ecological benefit, durability and less waste. The Centro Ovale concrete shell (Chiasso, Switzerland), exemplifies the adaptability of the material, while the Bella Sky Hotel (Copenhagen, Denmark) is an example of the innovative use of pre-cast concrete.

Steel

Steelwork in main construction is on the increasing as contractors become more in tune to the benefits of using the material in easing onsite risks, quick development for previous returns and environmental benefits, believes Alan Marshall, communications manager at the Australian Steel Institute. The US-based Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat recently reported in a study that the number of composite multi-level projects over 200 metres that characteristically includes a steel frame with metal-decking, increased 54 per cent across the globe in 2014.

Speed and efficiency: The benefits are many liker computer modeling on CNC equipment, structurally efficient, easily fabricated in controlled conditions driven by 3D modeling and CNC equipment, test certificate is always available here

Reducing onsite risks: Less number of the workers onsite where approximately 10-20 per cent is necessary for concrete connection reducing the accident liability.

Sustainability and waste reduction: The waste clearance is considerably less than for a concrete building here. More than 95 per cent of all structural steel is recoverable and reusable or recycled.

The most popular and common construction structural material Timber, Steel and Concrete has their own pros and cons. But the industry experts have also their own opinion about it.
Image Courtesy: sourceable.net
 The Metropol Parasol in Seville, Spain
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Published By

Arka Roy

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