Some useful processes to resist corrosion in steel reinforcement

In order to resist damage and failure of concrete structures, steel reinforcement Corrosion control methods are undertaken. Near about forty percentage of collapsing of concrete structures occur due to corrosion of inner steel reinforcement.

There are various reasons for the corrosion of steel reinforcement which range from the quality of concrete, atmosphere, and quality of construction practices.

Initially, it is required to arrange superior quality of concrete via good construction practices to manage corrosion in rebar. To manage rebar corrosion, the focus should be given on various factors like the quality of concrete materials, mixing, placing and compaction methods and good workmanship.

Quality control in concrete construction minimizes the scopes of corrosion. By applying the following methods, the corrosion of reinforcement bar can be controlled efficiently.

Steel reinforcement corrosion control processes :-

• Cement-Polymer Composite Coated Rebars (CPCC)
• Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coated Rebars (FBEC)
• Corrosion Resistant Steel Deformed Rebars (CRSD)

1.Cement-Polymer Composite Coated Rebars (CPCC): Cement polymer coat rebar implanted in concrete are encircled through an alkaline medium. A cement base coating is very effective in controlling reinforcement corrosion. Two coats of cement polymer are used on rebar like first Primer coat and a sealer coat.

Products contained in Cement Polymer Composite Coated rebar are:

• De-rusting Solution
• Alkaline Powder
• Phosphating Jelly
• Inhibitor Solution
• Sealing Solution

2. Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coated Rebars (FBEC): Fusion bond epoxy coat rebar is formed with 100% solid delicately grounded fuse powder particles. These particles are dissolved through heating to develop a permanent adherent film. There is not any passivating primer film contained in FBEC rebars. It produces a medium of weakness in the path of an intimate bond among rebar and alkaline concrete.

Epoxy provides the coating to the rebar with the following :-

• Melts
• Flows
• Gels
• Cures
• Cools
• Adheres to coating

3. Corrosion Resistant Steel Deformed Rebars (CRSD): Under this method, an initial layer of protective oxide or rust is created to resist the corrosion. On general rust on normal rebars, the CRSD rust is passive, persistent and self-renewing. The preventive oxide is fine texture, tightly adherent and a barrier to moisture, oxygen, carbon dioxide, Sulphur dioxide. The chloride provides protection against corrosion.

It is suggested to employ corrosion resistance Steel Deformed Rebars to resist corrosion of concrete structures, damage, and collapsing of concrete structures.

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Some useful processes to resist corrosion in steel reinforcement

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Arka Roy



The role of a quantity surveyor in construction sector

Liabilities of a Quantity Surveyor: A Quantity Surveyor (QS) is a professional who mainly deals with construction costs and contracts associated with the Construction Industry. The role of a quantity surveyor is to recognize and compile the related costs with the purpose of creating a complete budget for any project.

A quantity surveyor can then accept cost planning to facilitate all the members of the design team to find out the practical solutions and maintain the budget of the project.

The Quantity Surveyors along with the project architect produce this final detailed estimate to make a basis on which consequent tenders are examined. With schedules of quantities, it becomes easier to translate the drawing, plans and specifications submitted by the design team to facilitate the each contractor to work out the tender prices reasonably. Once tenders are approved, the Quantity Surveyor arranges cash flow data for the client to outline his resources sufficiently to fulfill contract commitments. Alternatively, the Quantity Surveyor has to settle on how much of a job should have been paid for at any one time.

Duties of Professional Quantity Surveyor – A Professional Quantity Surveyor (PQS) should accomplish the following works:

Produce and assess construction and development tenders out of information submitted by the architects, engineers and other design consultants as well as settle and reward contracts to successful proponents..

Handle, supervise and organize all types of construction and development projects, along with the contracts and sub-contracts, construction progress schedules, cost control systems, and work measurements.

Arrange, submit and control progress invoices, valuation of changes and settle contracts. Give suggestion on construction cost and strategic planning to potential owners, architects, engineers and public authorities.

Arrange and interpret tender documents, specifications, general conditions, and other parts and forms of contracts.

Create and deliver estimates for construction and development work.

Give suggestion commercially and support to construction and development project works.

Perform or take part in arbitration and court hearings. Research, negotiate and support dispute resolution operations. Function of a Construction Estimator Certified professional.

A Professional Quantity Surveyor contains a thorough knowledge of construction and construction methods together with the laws regarding construction projects and accounting, with the intention of providing cost and financial advice.

A Professional Quantity Surveyor should have specialty in mechanical or electrical disciplines, but all Professional Quantity Surveyors should possess working knowledge of the practical facets and design features of both fields.


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Benefits of Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) in Concrete Construction

The objective of engineered cementitious composites is to develop a robust and flexible material that can be utilized in various purpose where fiber reinforced concrete can’t be used. It is the newest concept.

The formation of cementitious materials with high ductility is useful for structural applications. The engineered cementitious composites contain properties of high strength concrete having improved tensile strain capacity.

Definition of Engineered Cementitious Composite

The components of engineered cementitious composite are identical to fiber reinforced concrete along with cement, sand, water, fiber, and a few chemical additives. Contrasting to the fiber reinforced concrete, the engineered cementitious composites do not contain huge volume of fiber.

The method for blending engineered cementitious composites is equivalent to that utilized for the normal concrete. The engineered cementitious composites are cost-effective as less fiber is applied and they retain the desired characteristics of strength and ductility.

The main variance in the properties of engineered cementitious composite and fiber reinforced concrete is that as soon as the engineered cementitious composite is cracked strain is solidified whereas the fiber reinforced concrete does not demonstrate such a behavior.

In fiber reinforced concrete, the crack forms with the crack of the fibers because of that the bearing strength of the stress is reduced. Besides, the engineered cementitious composites contain a high fracture toughness that has similarity with aluminium alloys, and the damage tolerance is tremendously high.

Usage Of Engineered Cementitious Composite

Engineered cementitious composites are utilized in shear elements which are dependent on a cyclic loading, in the mechanical components of the beam and column coalition, and for general structural repairs.

These composites are generally applied in structures which contain a high energy absorption, along with dampers, steel element joints and for hybrid steel connections.

Beside, structural applications, these compounds can be utilized as a shielding layer for enhancing the corrosive resistance of structures. Other probable targets of engineered cementitious composites contain underground structures, highway pavements, and bridge decks.

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How selection of construction site is dependent on the various factors

Before starting the construction work of a residential building, the proper consideration should be given on the following factors to choose the exact site for the building.

Topography, Nature of sub-soil, Position of the ground water tablem, Facilities, Neighbourhood, Undesirable things near the site, Vegetation, Shape of the site, Availability of men and materials, Proximity to sea-shore, river or lake or the place of natural beauty

Topography: Plain Grounds : If the site is plain, the process for marking, excavation and construction becomes easier without any leveling. But the problem may arise for drainage. Besides, dull pools will be developed after a deep shower. In dry weather, outflow of septic tank develops pools and various diseases will be spread out due to mosquitoes and other insects.

Slopping Grounds : A bare at least of 1% (1 in 100)slope is essential for smooth drainage. At least 2% slope should be maintained for the drainage of lawns. Slope is easily visible, if it surpasses 5%.A ground that is properly leveled contains 0% slope but it is not perfect for construction whereas a slope among 3% and 10% is mostly recognized for constructions. Smooth erosion is possible along these slopes after a deep shower and creep (downward sliding of the subsoil)is generally occurred.

Undulating ground : After proper leveling, construction can be built up on undulating ground.

Low lying area : A low lying area is not recommended. Low lying area next to water body as a lake, reservoir, tank, river or canal may come with a nice view and arrange a superior comfort in severely chill and scorching climate.

Nature of sub-soil : If a soil contains strong bearing strength, a permanent building can be easily developed. The soil that remains underneath the ground is known as sub-soil. The soils which have gravel and sand are called dry soils. These soils cause greater temperature and less humidity.

The position of ground water table : Ground Water Table (GWT) should be located at minimum depth of 3 m underneath ground level.

Percolation : Soils percolating at 180 s/mm are correspondingly less porous and pooling of waste water is generally found in them.

Facilities : Community services like street cleaning, fire protection and utilities like gas supply, drainage line, transport system should have been easily accessible without incurring any additional cost.

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Calculation of Cement and Sand Quantity for Plastering

The ratio and all calculations given below are according to the requirement of 12mm thick plastering.

Plastering, as we all know, removes imperfection of external walls along with maintaining the line level and the alignment. Generally, plastering is defined as a protective surface for walls. It can be many a type depending on the materials it uses such as cement plaster, gypsum plaster and lime plaster. These are the common types of plastering that are required for home construction.

Cement plaster has two main materials in its core – cement and sand. The right proportion is required to get the best outcome you expected. This plaster removes imperfections from both inner and outer walls of the construction. Knowing the right proportion is an important factor in the making the paste or mortar perfect for the walls.

The list below contains the ratio between cement and sand that you need to maintain as per the application.

  • Cement mortar ratio 1:3 – this mortar mix is not used in general applications. It can be used as a repair mortar when they are combined with a waterproofing or bonding agent.
    • 1:4 – for ceiling and external plaster.
    • 1:5 – the ratio proved to be good as brickwork mortar. It is also good for internal plaster.
    • 1:6 – this ratio can be maintained for internal plaster.


Calculate Cement and Sand Requirement for Cement Plastering:

Calculating the quantities of cement, sand and water depends on a few parameters. These bring out the logic why you need to maintain the ratio.

  • Volume of plaster requirement: the volume of plaster can be calculated by multiplying the area of the plaster and the thickness of the plastering (in this case – 12mm)
    • Mix Ratio of plaster: deciding the Mix Ratio of plastering contains complex calculation. It indicated the ratio of the volume of cement to sand. Mix ratio of plaster 1:4 means that the mixture has one part cement and 4 parts sand.

For calculating quantity, generally two methods have been applied –DLDB method and Empirical method. These two processes include steps required for a logical distribution of the materials. The calculations and measurements used in this methods based on the quantity of the materials.

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EMMA calculator for measuring electrical quantities

A generic ‘EMMA’ for work with bulk electrical quantities.

A multi-use EMMA should be applied for any ‘mass’ activity, that entails a physically quantifiable unit of construction work scope measured in tens, hundreds or thousands. As for instance, electrical cable tray or racking or cable laying/pulling are perfect individual subjects for this EMMA.

The EMMA contains 3 ‘pages’, called ‘INPUT’ (Basic data that should be entered to make EMMA functional), ‘TABLES’ (Spreadsheets used for entering target & actual progress percentages, man hours etc), and ‘CHARTS’ (Here accessed spreadsheets should be demonstrates as curves & histograms). The EMMA is applied for different purposes which are described below:

  1. To arrange target rate of progress (S-curve);
    2. To make an estimate regarding man-hours, converted to manpower requirements (histogram);
    3. To register units computed as complete every month;
    4. To register man-hours used each month, in that way automatically matching the actual rate of development and genuine handling of manpower, with premeditated rates.
    5. Besides, unacceptable trends can thus be recognized and work re-scheduled, together with automatic adjustments to manpower requirements, that will lead achievement of target completion.

Primary needs for inputting are:

  1. The projected total quantity;
    b. Meaning of the unit (eg m3);
    c. A valuation of man-hours necessary for each unit;
    d. The average number of hours to be conducted each day;
    e. The average number of days to be conducted on every week.

Subsequently, inputting should be compliant with notes provided.
Application of an EMMA will help in creating specific interest to anyone for taking liability to finish a work scope package before schedule.
6.11.B. Earthing tape, cable racks & trays, cables, terminations

The calculator demonstrated below can be employed for calculating man hours required for any one, or all, concerning the activities related to cabling which are incorporated. Besides, entering quantities, the user will be able to modify the unit manhour rates provided, for rates more in keeping with that User’s environment.

To obtain a hypothetical example, click Real-time Sync, provide secret key ‘electrified’ and click connect.

To start calculation, click on the following link

EMMA calculator for measuring electrical quantities

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Some newest technology to make construction process smarter

Some advanced technologies have emerged in materials science which can transform the construction industry to the next level.

As for instance, ordinary concrete is employed for different types of building applications ranging from foundations to flat surfaces. But, cracking may frequently occur for this type of concrete. If the cracking is not repaired, water can penetrate on its surface.

The problem can be resolved with a new self-healing concrete that employs bacteria to seal cracks devoid of any interference in the works. A permeable concrete that facilitates the water to gutter through it instead of pool on it is also being developed.

Other new materials are still in the testing phase. As for example, a transparent aluminum that provides the pleasing visuals of glass but the strength and longevity of metal. Transparent metal technology is also very useful for generating transparent solar panels for sustainable energy devoid of large, unappealing black rectangles on the roof.

3D printing technology is also gaining popularity among housing and construction sectors to fulfill the requirements for reasonable housing. With this technology, it is possible to 3D print a house in about a day at a lower cost as compared to conventional construction process.

Augmented reality, or AR, will play a significant role in construction. Contradictory to VR, or virtual reality, in which a person’s total field of vision is substituted with a rendered environment, AR arranges images over what’s actually come into reality.

In construction, an AR wearable will show the exact amounts to a 3D blueprint to workers as they’re on the job. The latest smart safety goggles like Google Glass, or smart helmets with a combination visor-screen are emerged in the market to make construction process superior.

Now-a-days, the drones are extensively used for surveying purposes, particularly for larger commercial projects on previously undeveloped land. With drones, it becomes easier to obtain full information on a job site rapidly efficiently.

The industry will continue to expand and advance and more improvements will occur in wearables and robotics which will provide a great impact in construction sectors.

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How to layout columns for a residence on the basis of thumb rules

In order to generate a column layout concerning a building, the following three crucial thumb rules are necessary:

  1. Size of the Columns 2. Distance between the columns 3. Alignment of Columns

Here, you will learn how the column layout of a residence is accomplished on the basis of the aforesaid three thumb rules.
Here, you will learn how the column layout of a residence is accomplished on the basis of the aforesaid three thumb rules.

Column Layout for a residence

The residential villa is built up with 1 and half floors. In the beginning, the column size 9″x12″ is utilized together with the M15 grade of concrete. To save money, the builder usually forms the columns smaller in size.

Therefore, the columns in the Floor plans remain 9″x9″ in size. The Engineer verifies that M20 grade of concrete must have been employed for Columns.

Thumb rule no1:

Size of the Columns

The size of the columns should be 9″x9″ together with the utilization of M20 grade of concrete.

Thumb rule no.2:
Space among the columns:
The space among the columns should not surpass 4.5m.

Thumb rule no.3:
Alignment of Columns
The Columns should be provided on an iron grid pattern. Therefore, no zigzag walls and zigzag beams exist which minimize complexities in the structure.

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How to layout columns for a residence on the basis of thumb rules

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Definition of M20 grade of concrete

In construction, there should be individual strength for each building element.

To maintain the strength of concrete for different elements, various types of concrete grades are required. The strength needed for foundation, beam, slab etc. will be different.
IS 456-2000 has specified the concrete mixes into a number of grades as M10, M15, M20, M25, M30, M35 and M40. In the following construction video tutorial, brief explanation is given on M20 grade of concrete.

In M20, M denotes Mix and 20 refers to the characteristic strength (fck) of that mix i.e. 20mpa. Cement, sand and aggregates are used for mixing in the ratio of 1 : 1.5 : 3. M20 signifies mixture of cement, sand and aggregate which are prepared in such a manner that a cement concrete cube of size 15 cm x 15 cm x 15 cm is formed with characteristic strength (fck) of 20mpa while examining it after being cured for 28 days.

The characteristic strength (fck) signifies the strength under which not over 5% of test results are predictable to fail.

Cement is always calculated with weight. Commonly it is applied in terms of bags. The weight of one bag of cement is 50 kg and it contains a volume of 35 litres (or, 0.035m3). A gauge box is employed for batching of fine and coarse aggregate by volume.

To get more brief information, watch the following video tutorial.

Definition of M20 grade of concrete

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Application of various types of plumbing pipes in construction

This construction video tutorial shows you different applications of plumbing pipes in construction.

The Plumbing system includes the entire system of pipe fittings and appliances which are utilized for water supply and drainage. In this supply and drainage system various types of pipes are employed for diverse objectives. There are two types of pipes in a plumbing system :-

1. Supply or service pipes
2. Drain pipes or waste disposal pipes

The plumbing pipes are mainly used for water supply purpose, drainage, waste disposal etc.

There are four types of pipes in supply and service pipes categories :-

1. Copper Pipes – When extreme corrosion occurs to metals due to use of ground water, then copper pipes are most suitable. In copper, there is powerful corrosive resistance capacity as compared to other pipe metals as well as substantial strength, rational ductility. The copper pipes are available in long lengths in the market. These pipes can carry high pressure and so; these pipes are also utilized for industrial purposes to undergo heavy flows. There exist two types of copper pipes like HEAVY GAUGE and LIGHT GAUGE pipes. Heavy gauge pipes are effective where pressure is extremely high. Light gauge pipes are recommended when the pressure remains under 0.15N/mm2 i.e. for internal domestic pipes.

2. Galvanized Iron Pipes – G.I pipes or steel pipes are less expensive as compared to copper pipes. But the harmful factor is that these are easily affected with corrosion in soft and acid waters. But these are very robust relating to copper pipes. Therefore, these pipes should be used in areas with less corrosion as well as in hard water areas. Hammering is required to eliminate the layers developed with hard water.

3. Polymer Piper or Plastic Pipes – Polythene pipes or plastic pipes are mostly suitable for cold water services. The plastic pipes provide various advantages which range from less corrosive, more cost effective, light weight, simple installation process, no threading needed, good resistance capacity against bacterial scale.

4. Lead Pipes – Lead pipe contains superior corrosion resistance, flexibility and hydraulic coefficient of flow. But lead content in water may result in poisoning effects which may cause harm to people. Therefore, it is not recommended for application.

To gather information on drain pipes or waste disposal pipes, watch the following construction video tutorial.

Application of various types of plumbing pipes in construction

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