Different types of clear cover in reinforcement concrete

This construction video tutorial provides brief instructions on how to arrange clear cover in different areas in proper quantities in reinforcement concrete. It is dependent on the exposure condition and fire resistance.

Clear Cover stands for the minimum distance among the surface of embedded reinforcement and the exterior surface of the concrete (ACI 130). The depth of clear cover is calculated with a cover meter.

Given below the details of clear cover :-

For water retaining structures – The clear cover should vary from 20 mm to 30 mm
For flat slab – The clear cover should be 20 mm
For slab – The clear cover will be 15 mm
For column – The clear cover should have been 40 mm
For strap beam – The clear cover should be 50 mm

For raft foundation at bottom – The clear cover should be 75 mm
For shear wall – The clear cover should be 25 mm
For footing – The clear cover should be 50 mm
For staircase – The clear cover should be 15 mm

Different types of clear cover in reinforcement concrete

Read more

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Published By
Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Yulio just launched a new plugin for sketchup to experience improved virtual reality

The size of the door should be made with such dimension so that it becomes possible to move the largest object through the doors.

For residential buildings, the size of the door should start from 0.9 m × 2.0 m and over. Larger doors are built up at the core entrance to the building to make view elegant. Minimum sized doors are suitable for bath rooms and water closets. The proposed size is 0.75 m × 1.9 m. As a thumb rule height of door should have been 1 m over and above its width.

Types of Doors – Different types of doors are available which are categorized based on the disposition of shutters, construction processes, precepts of working operations and materials employed. Detailed information is given below for the doors which are frequently used in the buildings:

  1. Battened and Ledged Doors: Battens are 100 mm to 150 mm large and made with 20 mm dense wooden boards. Their length is that of door opening. The battens are tied with horizontal planks, which are called as ledges of size 100 to 200 mm large and 30 mm thick. Generally, three ledges are employed one at top, one at bottom and the third one at mid-height. This is the easiest form of door and the economical also. Battens are fastened with tongued and grooved joint.
  2. Battened, Ledged and Braced Doors: If doors are wide except for applying battens and ledges diagonal members, identified as braces, are used to make the door toughen.

Periodically, above two types of shutters are supplied inside wooden frame work and in those cases they are named as battened, ledges and framed doors.

  1. Framed and Panelled Doors: This type of door comprises of vertical members, known as styles and horizontal members known as rails. The styles and rails are properly grooved to obtain panels. The panels may range from wood, A.C. sheet, glasses etc. The panels are flat or of raised type for having good appearance. These doors are used extensively. They are made of single shutter or of double shutter. If glass panels are employed they are known as glazed doors.

To get more information, go through the following link civilengineeringx.com

Different types of doors for building

Read more

Benefits of Mivan Aluminium Formwork System for construction sectors

Formwork belongs to either temporary or permanent die or molds into which fresh concrete or equivalent materials are poured to solidify later. Lots of time are required for the development of formwork. It comprises expenditure up to 20 to 25% of the cost of the structure or all the more. Design of these temporary structures is created in an cost-effective way. The procedure for eliminating the formwork is called stripping. Stripped formwork is reusable. Reusable forms are called panel forms and non-usable are known as stationary forms.

Timber is mostly recognized as material for formwork. The main drawback with timber formwork is that it bends, expands and shrinks easily . To overcome this issues MIVAN Formwork can be used to get rid of the issue.

MIVAN ALUMINIUM FORMWORK: A European construction company has created Mivan aluminium formwork system. The product is very cost-effective and suitable for the entire construction world.

Mivan technology can be used for building up great number of houses in a quickest possible time with room size forms to develop walls and slabs in one continuous pour on concrete.

Aluminum formwork saves huge cost toward repetitive Buildings layouts and above the plinth work. This system is very unusual because all the components in a building along with slabs, beams, walls, columns, staircases, balconies and special window hood are formed with devoid of any block works or brick works.

With it’s modular system, it facilitates smooth set up and elimination of formwork and the construction work can progress rapidly containing minimum deviation in dimensional tolerances. System is very compliant and easily customizable for any alternation in the layout. It comprises of four components Beam components, Deck components and wall components which are built with high strength aluminium alloy.

Given below, some useful benefits of Mivan Form :-

Easy to build up and eliminate formwork
Similar formwork can be applied for 1000 times
Plastering is not necessary
High seismic resistance
Rapid finishing of formwork

Benefits of Mivan Aluminium Formwork System for construction sectors

Read more

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Published By
Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Variation among Plastering and Pointing

Plastering: Plastering is the process for using mortar coats on the exterior of walls, columns, ceiling to provide a sleek finish. Mortar that is utilized in plastering may range from lime mortar, cement mortar or lime-cement mortar. Lime mortar that is utilized should contain fat lime to sand ratio of 1 : 3 or 1 : 4. If hydraulic lime is applied, it’s mix ratio (lime: sand) is 1 : 2. Cement mortar of 1 : 4 or 1 : 6 mix is mostly utilized for plastering, richer mix is applied for outside walls. Lime-cement mortar is the combination of lime mortar and cement mortar in the ratio of (cement : lime : sand) 1 : 1 : 6 or 1 : 1 : 8 or 1 : 2 : 8. Lime-cement mortar can save significant plastering cost.

Lime mortar is generally applied in 3 coats whereas cement mortar is used in two or three coats toward the stone and brick masonry. Cement mortar is used in two or three coats toward concrete surfaces.

Most often, one coat of cement mortar is used for concrete building blocks.

The first coat is useful for attaining level surface. The final coat produces smooth surface. When three coats are applied, second coat is called floating coat. The average density of first coat is 10 to 15 mm. The density of middle coat is 6–8 mm. The density of final coat is just 2 to 3 mm. When single coat is applied, the density remains among 6 to 12 mm. Such coats are useful for concrete surfaces not uncovered to rain.

Pointing: In some cases, special mortar finishing work is applied to the uncovered joints in place of providing plaster to the whole surface of the masonry. It is known as pointing. It comprises of slanting the joints to a depth of 10 mm to 20 mm and stuffing it with richer mortar mixes. Toward lime mortar, the ratio of pointing mix is 1 : 2 and for cement mortar pointing mix is applied in the ratio of 1 : 3. Pointing is mostly suitable for stone masonry as stones contain eye-catching colors and strong resistance power against water penetration. Pointing makes weaker part of masonry (i.e. to joints) more accurate and it enhances the aesthetic view of the masonry.

Given below, some points of variations among plastering and pointing.

Variation among Plastering and Pointing

Read more

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Published By
Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

How to Locate a Home Renovation Contractor

In order to start a renovation plan toward your home, you have to initially hire an architect. He takes the liability to create the designs which should be attended by a construction team. Then, it is required to find out and employ a professional home renovation contractor. This person will lead the construction team liable for building your renovation. A good contractor plays an important role toward any home renovation project. Given below, some useful tips on how to select a good contractor.

 

  1. Search for a most experienced and knowledgeable contractor
    Restrain from employing a novice contractor to supervise a renovation project on your home as there may occur very foul things which can lead to a severe amount of damage and it will be very exorbitant for you to resolve. If you prefer to hire an experienced a contractor, everything will be as per your plan.

 

You are going to incur significant amount of money for reconstructing your home. So, It is suggested to opt for a contractor who has been performing this type of work for a prolong period. Preferably, you should only give importance on hiring a contractor who should possess at least five years of working experience as a full-time contractor. It will make sure that the project will continue smoothly.

 

  1. Get references from some of the people in your life who you trust
    You should probably know some people who have already employed a contractor at some point in the past. If so, it will better to confer with these people and get help from the suggestions they provide. Are they satisfied with the work provided by their contractor? Did the person take a rational rate for the work they did? Did he show up on time? These are all critical things you should find out. Click on the link to search for the contractors online (renovationexperts.com).

 

  1. How speedily will the contractor be capable of completing his work?
    You do not prefer to wait around perpetually for your contractor to complete his or her work. So, make an estimate for the probable completion period of your project.

 

How to Locate a Home Renovation Contractor

Read more

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Published By
Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Overview of Peikko DSA Punching Reinforcement System for Cast-in-Place Concrete

This construction video tutorial provides the demonstration Peikko DSA Punching Reinforcement. It belongs to a Transverse Reinforcement System for Cast-in-Place Concrete. It is specifically designed to improve the strength of punching shear concerning elevated concrete slabs and slabs on grade devoid of raising their thickness.

DSA rails consist of steel double-headed DSA Studs welded to a steel shape. The steel shape ensures the exact spacing and placing of the studs throughout their set up in concrete as per ASTM-A1044 standard. It should be used for both top and bottom installation.

Peikko DSA Punching Reinforcement offers an easy and consistent solution toward punching and shear failure which may happen in elevated concrete slabs, slabs on grade and footings.

If DSA Punching Reinforcement is applied in elevated slabs like reinforced concrete slabs or post-tensioned slabs, DSA Punching Reinforcement system disregards the requirement for column capitals. Therefore, forming and concrete costs are minimized significantly.

DSA reinforced cast-in-place elevated slabs are designed slimmer to minimize the entire construction height. It leads to huge savings in construction and running costs. The DSA system also provides a ceiling with uninterrupted clearance facilitating adaptability and simplicity of planning and installation of building services.

The fabrication process for DSA studs is done with low carbon steel grades C1010 through C1020. DSA Punching Reinforcement system adheres to the standard specification for steel stud assemblies for the shear reinforcement of concrete ASTM A-1044. It should be designed according to ACI 318-14 and CSA A23.3-14 which make it relevant in North America and Middle East.

Punching Reinforcement systems are also employed in foundations to curtail the thickness of footings, pile caps and slabs on grade. Other applications range from DSA rails are utilized as shear reinforcement in beams, walls and other concrete elements.

To get more information, click on the following link. www.peikkousa.com

Overview of Peikko DSA Punching Reinforcement System for Cast-in-Place Concrete

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Published By
Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 

Variation among pad foundation, strip foundation and raft foundation

Shallow foundation is generally described as foundation that contains founding level below 3m from ground surface. Alternatively, when the breadth of the lower most part of the foundation is more than the depth of the lower most part of the foundation from the uppermost of the soil, i.e. Ground Level then it is defined as a Shallow Foundation. It transmits building loads to the earth adjacent to the surface. Shallow foundations comprise of spread footing foundations, mat-slab foundations, slab-on-grade foundations, pad foundations, rubble trench foundations and earthbag foundations.

Pad foundation stands for the foundation that is specifically developed for retaining concentrated loads out of a single point load like structural columns. Pad foundations are specifically designed to provide support to individual or multiple columns, scattering the load to the ground underneath. They are usually square or rectangular in plan, the plan area is defined by the allowable bearing pressure of the soil. The shape in plan will be determined by the arrangement of the columns and the load will be transmitted into the soil.

The thickness of the slab should be adequate to make sure that distribution of the load is perfect. The top of the pad should have been sloping (i.e. the pad is denser in the centre as compared to it is at the edge). It provides a cost-effective solution, though there are construction issues which are associated with casting the slope.

Strip foundation is utilized to provide support to a line of loads like load-bearing walls. As for example, closely-placed columns deliver the imperfect application of pad foundation and strip foundation may be a good choice.

Raft foundation comprises of a concrete slab which expands over the entire loaded area in order that loads from whole structure are expanded over a broader area that results in minimizing of the stress of foundation soils. Besides, raft foundation is useful for resisting differential settlement.

Ref.: www.engineeringcivil.com

Variation among pad foundation, strip foundation and raft foundation

 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Published By
Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Various types of loads acting on building structure

The types of external loads, operating on building and other structures, are categorized as the following :-

  1. Static loads belong to the forces which are applied sluggishly and then turns out to be almost constant.
  2. One instance is the weight, or dead load associated with a floor or roof system.
    3. Dynamic loads fluctuate with time. They comprise of repeated and impact loads.
    4. Repeated loads are forces which are used several times. These types of loads can make a difference in the magnitude, and occasionally also in the sense, of the internal forces. A good example is an off-balance motor.
  3. Impact loads stand for forces through which energy is occupied in a short timespan by a structure or its components time. An instance is the falling of a heavy weight on a floor slab, or the shock wave emerged out an explosion striking the walls and roof of a building.
    6. External forces are also categorized as distributed and concentrated.
    7. Uniformly distributed loads belong to a distributed load that contains a constant value like 1kN/m. It’s magnitude stays uniform all through the length. Uniformly distributed load is generally denoted by W and is stated as intensity of udl over the beam, slab etc. The instance of this load is dead weight of a rolled-steel I beam.
  4. Concentrated loads belong to forces containing such a small contact area that is omitted corresponding to the whole surface area of the supporting member. As for instance a beam supported on a girder can be taken, for all practical purposes, a concentrated load on the girder.
    9. Another common category for external forces which are labeled as axial, eccentric, and torsional.
    10. An axial load pertains to a force whose resultant goes over the centroid of a section under consideration and stands upright to the plane of the section.
    11. An eccentric load stands for a force that stands upright to the plane of the section under consideration but not going through the centroid of the section, therefore bending the supporting member.

Read more

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Published By
Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 

How to analyze rates for a PCC work with spreadsheet

Parag Pal, the most promising civil engineer, has provided some useful tips for making rate analysis concerning plain cement concrete (PCC) through an excel based spreadsheet.

P.C.C alias plain cement concreate is a useful construction material that is formed by mixing in proportion of the cement (usually portland cement), aggregate (coarse or fine ),sand and water. It is normally utilized like a binding material. Pcc is robust in compression but feeble in the tension and shear. It is mostly found in foundation work and flooring in building.

PCC is mainly used for following purposes

  1. It is applied like a protective layer for the RCC above to facilitate water from the RCC not being immersed by the earth below.
    2. Arranges a base for the concrete as well as facilitates the workers to set out the structure above in an efficient manner
    3. Performs as a cover to reinforced cement concrete i.e. protect against corrosion of steel bars in footings

Each construction project is allocated into number of activities. Each activity contains various types of civil or construction works. Rate analysis is necessary for removing cost of construction, material planning, labour and equipment allocation in the scheduling etc.

You can’t download the spreadsheet but make necessary modification in the spreadsheet online as per your database. Only the figure in given in red color can be changed and the result will be reflected to all the cells.

To avail the spreadsheet, click on the following link. www.civilnotess.com

How to analyze rates for a PCC work with spreadsheet

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Published By
Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Some useful construction tips on concrete mix design

This construction video tutorial focuses on concrete mix design. In this video grades are taken as M 7.5, M10, M15, M20 and mix ratios for cement, sand and aggregate are taken as 1:4:8, 1:3:6, 1:2:4, 1:1.5:3. The amount of water is required for amalgamating concrete in 50 kg cement.

Concrete mix design refers to the method of choosing the appropriate components (cement, sand and coarse aggregates) as well as their relevant proportions with the purpose of developing concrete by maintaining specific minimum strength & durability.

Objective of mix design
To make sure that the optimal ratios of the constituent materials is maintained to satisfy the need of the structure.
To obtain the preferred minimum strength in the hardened stage.

To obtain the needed minimum strength in the hardened stage.
To obtain the preferred strength in the specified environment conditions
To form concrete as inexpensively as possible.

Some useful construction tips on concrete mix design

Read continue

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Published By
Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~