Get some useful tips to conduct your leveling survey at home

While going to layout something for road, bridge, dam or pipe line, land surveying plays an important role. Surveying is done to find out the legal boundaries among the parcels of property, the position of current infrastructure, the topography as well as slopes of the land.

Traditional measurement tools like a tape measure and protractor are not suitable for accomplishing large civil structures and public works projects.

In this construction video tutorial, Mr. Grady shows some useful tips which will help you to conduct your own topographic or leveling survey at home with fairly elementary and cost-effective tools. You don’t require any knowledge with sines, cosines, or tangents.

To learn the complete process, go through the following video tutorial.

Video Source: Practical Engineering

Get some useful tips to conduct your leveling survey at home

Published By
Arka Roy


Combined Pad Foundation Design Spreadsheets

Combined Pad Foundation Design Spreadsheets comprise of a series of spreadsheets which can be used for stability analysis and structural design of a combined rectangular pad foundation.

The spreadsheets evaluate the loadings input by the user and work out the best possible pad size to transmit these loads into an tolerable bearing pressure into the soil.

Unique Pad Sizing and Eccentricity Charts simplify the process for the designer to opt for the best pad dimensions.

As soon as the pad size is set, the spreadsheets then workout the design bending moments and the necessary reinforcement in both X and Y directions for sagging and hogging. The designer can then indicate the perfect reinforcement arrangement with unique recommended reinforcement chart which demonstrates graphically the existing reinforcement arrangements to fulfil both necessary cross sectional area and spacing requirements.

Then a summary page is formed and a reinforcement drawing is produced to provide the perfect reinforcement arrangements which the user has indicated.

The suite comprises of a total of 4 spreadsheets :

• A simple combined pad design spreadsheet to make analysis of a simple combined pad foundation depending on two axial loads where the consequential load must operate through the centroid of the base.

This spreadsheet is ideal for most cases and facilitates making design rapidly for straight forward situations.

• A complex integrated pad design spreadsheet that can easily analyze any combined rectangular pad foundation on the basis of axial, horizontal or moment loadings.

These spreadsheets contain all the tools to design complicated issues or where close attention should be given to detail. It can deal with any size rectangular pad and rectangular columns to where space is restricted in one direction. The spreadsheet also arranges the base for being loaded eccentrically in any arrangement required by the designer.

It comprises sliding analysis to rationalize any horizontal loads. It involves design charts to make brief analysis of shear and punching shear loads, and comprises of bending moment and shear force diagrams to facilitate the designer to design the reinforcement in as much detail.

Both simple and complex spreadsheets are available to abide by either British Standards BS8110 & BS8004 or Eurocodes BS En 1992 & BS En 1997.

Download Combined Pad Foundation Design Spreadsheets

Combined Pad Foundation Design Spreadsheets

Published By
Arka Roy

How to design reinforced concrete diaphragms for wind

This is a useful technical brief for all the civil engineers that briefly explains the concept of reinforced concrete diaphragms.

To cope up with seismic loading, floor and roof systems in reinforced concrete (RC) buildings function as diaphragms to deliver the lateral earthquake loads to the vertical lateral force-resisting system (LFRS). In recent times, horizontal diaphragms are generally accepted to be rigid. Consequently, the impact of their in-plane movement concerning the vertical LFRS is ignored.

A precast concrete diaphragm comprises of precast components having unnecessary cast-in-place pour strips along some or all boundaries and with or without cast-in-place topping slabs.

Reinforced concrete diaphragms (related to floors and roofs) regarding a structure attach the vertical structural components (like walls and frames) collectively so that the buildings can withstand outside loads like gravity and lateral forces from seismic events or wind action.

Floor diaphragms are very crucial for transmitting the forces from the structure to the lateral force defiant components which then move the forces from the structure to the ground. The magnitudes of internal forces inside concrete floor diaphragms are significantly more complicated as compared to those supposed by some basic methods which are applied in current design practice, like the Equivalent Static Analysis (ESA) method. The ESA method is mostly found in structural design.

Cast-in-place, reinforced concrete slabs having standard ratios and span lengths can generally be taken as rigid diaphragms. It signifies that the lateral forces are transmitted to the components of the LFRS corresponding to their proportional rigidities. In systems where beams or ribs exist – like in wide-module, two-way joist and grillage systems – the components underneath the slab allow to harden the diaphragm even further.

With adherence to the American Concrete Institute’s ACI 318, Section 12.3, diaphragms should contain enough thickness to fulfill all related strength and serviceability requirements. Normally, the thickness of a floor or roof system is initially set on the basis of the strength and serviceability requirements with respect to gravity loads. That thickness is normally enough to fulfill equivalent requirements for the combined factored load effects (gravity plus lateral) on the diaphragm.

Diaphragm Forces – There exist two primary forces in diaphragms, which are known as inertial forces from the accelerations of the floors and transfer forces which originate from incompatible deformation patterns from various lateral force countering systems inside the structure. The type of lateral force resisting systems and the geometry of the structure will state which of these forces, inertia or transfer, will lead.

To get more details, go through the following exclusive construction article

How to design reinforced concrete diaphragms for wind

Published By
Arka Roy

Various types of supports for loads

Roller Supports: Roller Support Example in a CraneRoller supports can be revolved freely as well as translated over the surface upon which the roller is situated.

The surface may come in different forms like horizontal, vertical or slopped at any angle. Roller supports are generally situated at one end of long bridges in the sort of bearing pads. This support facilitates bridge structure to stretch and contract as per modifications of temperature and devoid of this expansion the forces can rupture the supports at the banks.

This support does not have the capacity to withstand the lateral forces. Roller support is also utilized in frame cranes in heavy industries, the support can pass on toward left, right and rotate by withstanding vertical loads. In this way, a heavy load can be transmitted from one place to another horizontally.

Hinge Supports: With the hinge support, it is possible to withstand forces which operate in any direction of the plane. This support does not have any resistance capacity against rotation. The horizontal and vertical component of reaction is found with equation of equilibrium. Hinge support is also applied in three hinged arched bridges at the banks supports even as at the center internal hinge is introduced. It is also employed in doors to create only rotation in a door. Hinge support minimizes sensitivity to earthquake.

FIXED SUPPORT: Fixed support has the strength to withstand vertical and horizontal forces as well as moment as they prevent both rotation and translation. They are also called rigid support. To maintain longevity of a structure, a fixed support should exist.

A flagpole at concrete base is the instance of fixed support. In RCC structures, the steel reinforcement of a beam is implanted in a column to create a fixed support. The instances of fixed supports are all the riveted and welded joints in steel structure.

PINNED SUPPORTS: Pinned Supports – A pinned support has the similarity with hinged support. It can withstand both vertical and horizontal forces devoid of a moment.

It facilitates the structural member to rotate, but not to translate in any direction. Many connections are taken as pinned connections although they might withstand a small amount of moment in reality. It is known fact that a pinned connection can facilitate rotation in only one direction by providing resistance to rotation in any other direction.

Ideal pinned and fixed supports are not often detected in practice, but beams supported on walls or simply connected to other steel beams are treated as pinned. The distribution of moments and shear forces is dependent on the support condition.

INTERNAL HINGE: Interior hinges are mostly used to join flexural members at points other than supports.

In some cases, it is purposely introduced with the intension that additional load breaks this weak zone in spite of damaging other structural elements.


Various types of supports for loads

Published By
Arka Roy

Different categories of sands and their applications

The sand is mainly applied for rock particles which mainly vary in grain size among 2 mm and 1/16 mm. In composition, they are primarily an oxide of silica SiO2.

Mineralogically, they mostly include broken grains of mineral Quartz (SiO2) that is formed due to the crashing of sandstones and equivalent rocks.

Categorization of Sands: Sands are classified variously on the basis of their Based on the mode of origin, composition, and grain size, the sands are differently categorized.

The mode of origin: With adherence to the mode of origin, there are three types of sands like pit sands, stream sands and marine sands..

The pit sands are generally sharp and angular in outline. Winds generally deposited them and develop accumulations in soils covered by clays. Good quality mortars can be produced from these sands by purifying and cleansing them properly.

The river sands come about large accumulations along the base and banks of all the rivers in plains and semi-hilly areas. The shape of the sand grains in river sands appear almost round (because of significant movement in river waters).

These do not contain clay, salt encrustations, and organic impurities. So, these are frequently utilized to produce mortars, plasters, and concrete.

The marine sands are found on beaches and along the seashores. Similar to river sands, they comprise of rounded grains of quartz. There are some problems with these sands as their grains are mostly wrapped with coatings of salts from sea water.

These salts can’t be separated easily. So, if these salts are utilized with mortars or concrete, a reaction occurs with the binding materials and produce lots of difficulties. Beside, the salt encrustations are often hygroscopic, it means they consume moisture from the atmosphere.

It also leads to delayed setting, dampness. Besides, efflorescence may also happen in mortar or concrete that is formed with these sands. Therefore, the quality of marine sands is substandard and should not be recommended. But, in case of requirements, marine sands should be cleansed perfectly prior to utilize them.

In order to learn how sand is categorized on the basis of composition and grain size, go through the following construction article.



Different categories of sands and their applications

Published By
Arka Roy

Various types of Design Loads on Bridges, Highway & Rail Bridge

While going to deign any bridge, the tasks like computation of Design Loads and loading bridge model are very important. Given below, some crucial loads which should be taken into consideration at the time of creating the design of a bridge.

Dead Load – “Gravity loading because of structural parts of bridge”

Dead load comprises of permanent gravity forces because of structural Elements. It is basically measured as the product of volume and material density. Normally, self-weight is employed in the analysis model with the self-weight option of the analysis software. This makes the calculation step simple.

Superimposed Dead Load – “Dead Gravity loading because of non-structural parts of bridge”

Superimposed dead loads stand for gravity loads that include other permanent items ranging from parapets and road surfacing and other non-structural and architectural attachments to the bridge. Such items last long but should have been modified during the lifetime of the structure. It has similarity with self-weight and it is measured as the product of volume and material density.

The most crucial item of superimposed dead load belongs to the road pavement or surfacing. It is not atypical for road pavements to become gradually thicker over a number of years since every new surfacing is just placed on top of the one before it. Therefore, specifically high load factor is employed to road pavement.

Imposed traffic Loading – “Because of road or rail vehicles”

Imposed traffic loads contain those forces which are produced with road or rail vehicles on the bridge. Bridge traffic can be vehicular, rail or pedestrian/cycle or genuinely any combination of these. The type and strength of the design vehicle alters on the basis of the design code. As for instance, HL-93 is used in AASHTO design code.

Bridge traffic loading is frequently monitored by trucks whose weights significantly surpass the maximum legal. Bridge traffic loading is used with the notional lanes which do not depend on the actual lanes. Eurocode normal loading comprises of invariable loading and a pair of four wheels in a single lane.

To examine the dynamic effects of traffic, the vehicular loads are multiplied with an impact factor frequently.

Pedestrian and cycle track – “Gravity loading because of non-vehicular traffic”

Bridge codes normally indicate a basic intensity for pedestrian loading. Again intensity is based on the design code, it is 5 kN/m2 in the Eurocode and the British standard and 4 kN/m2 in the American code.

To get more detail information, go through the following link.

Various types of Design Loads on Bridges, Highway & Rail Bridge

Published By
Arka Roy

How to make the design of a Foundation

Foundation is the portion of structure underneath plinth level up to the soil. It is directly connected with soil and it transfers the load of super structure to soil. Normally, it is located under the ground level.

If some portion of foundation is situated over ground level, it is also enveloped with earth filling. This part of structure is not in touch with air, light etc, It is considered as the concealed part of the structure.

Depth of Foundation: Depth of foundation is based on the following points-

1. Sufficient bearing capacity should exist
2. Depth of shrinkage and swelling for of clay soils, because of change in climate that may lead to appreciable movements.
3. Depth of frost penetration for fine sand and silt.
4. Chances of availability of excavation
5. Depth of ground water table
6. Practical lowest depth of foundation should not be under 50 cm. to facilitate subtraction of top soil and deviations in ground level.
7. So, the desired depth of foundation should vary from 1.00 meter to 1.5 meter from original ground level.

Footing: Footing belongs to a structure that is built up in brick work, masonry or concrete under the base of a wall or column for dispersing the load over a extended area.

Width of Foundation/Footings

The width of footings is based on the structural design. For light loaded buildings like houses, flats, school buildings etc which do not contain over two stories, the width of foundation is provided below :-

1. The width of footing should not be under 75 cm for one brick thick wall.
2. The width of footing should not be under 1 meter for one and half brick wall.

Various methods in Foundation Work: The following methods are involved in the foundation works –

1. Excavation of earth work in trenches for foundation.
2. Work out cement concrete.
3. Set the footing for raft or column construction.
4. Arrange Anti termite treatment.

5. Set Brick work up to plinth level.
6. Set Damp proof course on the walls.
7. Refilling of earth around the walls
8. Refilling of earth in the building portion up to the desired height as per plinth level.

for more:

How to make the design of a Foundation

Published By
Arka Roy

Brief overview of metal casting

Casting means development of hot liquid metals or several metals which are cooled after obtaining the constituents like clay, plaster and concrete mixed in. This method is also utilized in forming cars or planes.

Various types of castings are found in construction industries. Given below, the detail lists of them :-

Non-expendable mold casting – This type of casting is categorized as continuous, centrifugal, die, and permanent casting.

Continuous casting – It is utilized as a superior procedure of casting for high-volume, continuous production of metal sections with constant cross-section. Here, the liquefied metal is poured into a water-cooled and open-ended copper mold. It offers a layer of solid metal to be developed over the still-liquid centre.

Continuous casting is very economical and hence it is mostly recognized among construction professionals. The metals incessantly casted are aluminum, copper, and steel.

Centrifugal casting – This option is not influenced by both-pressure and gravity since its own force feed is constructed by means of utilizing a temporary sand mold in a spinning chamber. The completion time fluctuates with regards to the application itself. True-and-semi-centrifugal processing facilitates 30 to 50 pieces to be finished every hour.

Die-casting – It is most crucial of all the methods, Under this method, the melted metal is forced into cavities of mold in high pressure. These castings include non-ferrous metals, especially-alloys of aluminum, copper, and zinc.

Sand casting – It is considered as the most convenient and most recognized casting types. It entails very small size operations. Here, the bonding of sand occurs with the use of clays. The process can be initiated prior to recycling.

Plaster casting – It is also applied extensively and is closely equivalent as sand casting, excluding plaster.

If it is required to construct your own metal works, just consult with a brand or professional relating to equipment and safety tips.


Brief overview of metal casting

Published By
Arka Roy

Some useful processes to resist corrosion in steel reinforcement

In order to resist damage and failure of concrete structures, steel reinforcement Corrosion control methods are undertaken. Near about forty percentage of collapsing of concrete structures occur due to corrosion of inner steel reinforcement.

There are various reasons for the corrosion of steel reinforcement which range from the quality of concrete, atmosphere, and quality of construction practices.

Initially, it is required to arrange superior quality of concrete via good construction practices to manage corrosion in rebar. To manage rebar corrosion, the focus should be given on various factors like the quality of concrete materials, mixing, placing and compaction methods and good workmanship.

Quality control in concrete construction minimizes the scopes of corrosion. By applying the following methods, the corrosion of reinforcement bar can be controlled efficiently.

Steel reinforcement corrosion control processes :-

• Cement-Polymer Composite Coated Rebars (CPCC)
• Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coated Rebars (FBEC)
• Corrosion Resistant Steel Deformed Rebars (CRSD)

1.Cement-Polymer Composite Coated Rebars (CPCC): Cement polymer coat rebar implanted in concrete are encircled through an alkaline medium. A cement base coating is very effective in controlling reinforcement corrosion. Two coats of cement polymer are used on rebar like first Primer coat and a sealer coat.

Products contained in Cement Polymer Composite Coated rebar are:

• De-rusting Solution
• Alkaline Powder
• Phosphating Jelly
• Inhibitor Solution
• Sealing Solution

2. Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coated Rebars (FBEC): Fusion bond epoxy coat rebar is formed with 100% solid delicately grounded fuse powder particles. These particles are dissolved through heating to develop a permanent adherent film. There is not any passivating primer film contained in FBEC rebars. It produces a medium of weakness in the path of an intimate bond among rebar and alkaline concrete.

Epoxy provides the coating to the rebar with the following :-

• Melts
• Flows
• Gels
• Cures
• Cools
• Adheres to coating

3. Corrosion Resistant Steel Deformed Rebars (CRSD): Under this method, an initial layer of protective oxide or rust is created to resist the corrosion. On general rust on normal rebars, the CRSD rust is passive, persistent and self-renewing. The preventive oxide is fine texture, tightly adherent and a barrier to moisture, oxygen, carbon dioxide, Sulphur dioxide. The chloride provides protection against corrosion.

It is suggested to employ corrosion resistance Steel Deformed Rebars to resist corrosion of concrete structures, damage, and collapsing of concrete structures.

Article Source :

Some useful processes to resist corrosion in steel reinforcement

Published By
Arka Roy


The role of a quantity surveyor in construction sector

Liabilities of a Quantity Surveyor: A Quantity Surveyor (QS) is a professional who mainly deals with construction costs and contracts associated with the Construction Industry. The role of a quantity surveyor is to recognize and compile the related costs with the purpose of creating a complete budget for any project.

A quantity surveyor can then accept cost planning to facilitate all the members of the design team to find out the practical solutions and maintain the budget of the project.

The Quantity Surveyors along with the project architect produce this final detailed estimate to make a basis on which consequent tenders are examined. With schedules of quantities, it becomes easier to translate the drawing, plans and specifications submitted by the design team to facilitate the each contractor to work out the tender prices reasonably. Once tenders are approved, the Quantity Surveyor arranges cash flow data for the client to outline his resources sufficiently to fulfill contract commitments. Alternatively, the Quantity Surveyor has to settle on how much of a job should have been paid for at any one time.

Duties of Professional Quantity Surveyor – A Professional Quantity Surveyor (PQS) should accomplish the following works:

Produce and assess construction and development tenders out of information submitted by the architects, engineers and other design consultants as well as settle and reward contracts to successful proponents..

Handle, supervise and organize all types of construction and development projects, along with the contracts and sub-contracts, construction progress schedules, cost control systems, and work measurements.

Arrange, submit and control progress invoices, valuation of changes and settle contracts. Give suggestion on construction cost and strategic planning to potential owners, architects, engineers and public authorities.

Arrange and interpret tender documents, specifications, general conditions, and other parts and forms of contracts.

Create and deliver estimates for construction and development work.

Give suggestion commercially and support to construction and development project works.

Perform or take part in arbitration and court hearings. Research, negotiate and support dispute resolution operations. Function of a Construction Estimator Certified professional.

A Professional Quantity Surveyor contains a thorough knowledge of construction and construction methods together with the laws regarding construction projects and accounting, with the intention of providing cost and financial advice.

A Professional Quantity Surveyor should have specialty in mechanical or electrical disciplines, but all Professional Quantity Surveyors should possess working knowledge of the practical facets and design features of both fields.


Read more

Published By
Arka Roy