Checklist of Concrete Formwork at Construction Site throughout Concreting and Striking

Concrete formwork stands for a temporary supporting structure for concrete. It is arranged at the job site to retain the concrete in perfect position and shape unless it becomes solidified.

Ensure that formwork should be done prior to start of concreting work, throughout concreting and after elimination of formwork. Concrete formwork contains both quality and safety threats. If the formwork is improper for the concrete and work is accomplished at height, safety issue may occur.

If the formwork is imperfectly organized and does not have good resistance capacity against leak, the quality of concrete may hamper. If the concrete formwork is stored sufficiently, the cost of the project is reduced significantly.

Checklist of concrete formwork in construction site:

Formwork Checklist for Walls:

1. Make sure lateral bracings rigidly supports the forms at all points of support.
2. Layout (stop end) braced to withstand vertical and lateral loads.
3. Form panels are sufficiently braced and attached with each other.
4. Formwork corners shall be adequately attached so that leakage, bulging and spreading of concrete do not occur.
5. Make sure there is adequate length for wall ties as well as necessary strength and spacing as necessary.

6. Verify wales to maintain proper spacing and joints and they should be staggered from one tier to the next.
7. In double member wales, one member remains continuous over the location of form ties.
8. Wall ties and bolts are tightened properly.
9. In case of double member, wales are utilized and both wales should contain similar depths.

10. Verify that sufficient lap exists among forms and previously cast concrete.
11. Make sure that there is no grout leakage at joints among panels and joints connecting old concrete and panels over them.
12. Examine the provision of resistance against uplift for sloping faces of concrete formwork.

13. Make sure that the installation of wall forms and placement of concrete should be done at the construction site in the presence of an experienced supervisor.

To get more details, go through the following construction article

Checklist of Concrete Formwork at Construction Site throughout Concreting and Striking

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Arka Roy


How to create rate analysis of civil works

Each construction project is segregated into various numbers of activities. Each activity is supported with types of civil or construction works.

As for instance, when a building is constructed there are various activities like excavation or earthwork, concrete work, masonry work, wood work such as doors and windows, plumbing, flooring, waterproofing, finishing work like plastering, painting and distempering.

The Activity earthwork is segregated into different types depending on depth and type of soil. As for instance, an excavation of 1.5m deep in soft soil, an excavation of 3m deep in hard soil. Similarly, concrete work is segregated into several types on the basis of its mix proportions and its placement.

As for instance, M25 reinforced concrete is suitable in foundation, M30 reinforced concrete work in columns, slabs etc. Similarly, there are various small civil works in each construction project.

The construction project cost is estimated on the basis of each works related to each construction activity. Thus it is necessary to compute the cost of each small works.

Rate analysis of Civil Works or Building Works is the determination of cost of each construction work per unit quantity.

This cost includes the cost of materials, labors, machinery, contractors profit and other diverse insignificant expenses essential for the specific work that should be executed in unit quantity.

As for instance, cost of 1 cubic meter of M20 RCC work in slab, Cost of 1 cubic meter of excavation in soft soil of 1.5m depth, cost of 1 square meter of plastering of 20mm, cost of 1 square meter of painting work with specified paint in 2 layers or 3 layers as necessary.

Compute the cost of materials in rate analysis as composite of cost of material at origin, its transportation costs, taxes. The rate of labor is set with skill of the labor, like skilled labor, semi-skilled and unskilled labor. The cost of materials and labors differ from place to place. Thus, the cost of each construction work fluctuates from place to place.

How to create rate analysis of civil works

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Arka Roy

Specification of M50 concrete mix design

Concrete mix design belongs to the method of determining the ratios of concrete mix in terms of proportions of cement, sand and coarse aggregates.

As for instance a concrete mix of proportions 1:2:4 signifies that cement, fine and coarse aggregate are in the ratio 1:2:4 or the mix comprises of one part of cement, two parts of fine aggregate and four parts of coarse aggregate.

The concrete mix design proportions are both by volume or by mass. The water-cement ratio is normally stated in mass.

The mix design M-50 grade (with Admixture –Sikament) presented here is for reference purpose only. Actual site conditions may fluctuate and consequently, this should be modified as per the location and other factors.

M50 Grade concrete is mostly suitably in heavily reinforced structures to withstand dynamic loading.

Given below the specifications of M50 Concrete Mix Design

Grade Designation = M-50
Type of cement = O.P.C-43 grade
Brand of cement = Vikram ( Grasim )
Admixture = Sika [Sikament 170 ( H ) ]
Fine Aggregate = Zone-II
Sp. Gravity
Cement = 3.15

Fine Aggregate = 2.61
Coarse Aggregate (20mm) = 2.65
Coarse Aggregate (10mm) = 2.66
Minimum Cement (As per contract) =400 kg / m3
Maximum water cement ratio (As per contract) = 0.45

Mix Calculation: –
1. Target Mean Strength = 50 + ( 5 X 1.65 ) = 58.25 Mpa

2. Selection of water cement ratio:-
Suppose water cement ratio = 0.35

3. Calculation of water: Estimated water content for 20mm max. Size of aggregate = 180 kg /m3 (As per Table No. 5 , IS : 10262 ). As plasticizer is projected, water content is decreased by 20%.

Water content is taken as 180 X 0.8 = 144 kg /m3

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Specification of M50 concrete mix design

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Arka Roy

How to use Staad Pro computer program to analyze a continuous beam with various types of loading

This is another exclusive tutorial from Unite Coaching. The tutorial is based on estimating with Staad Pro. Staad Pro is a globally recognized computer program for effective structural analysis and design. It is compatible with all Indian and all international codes.

With STAAD.Pro, the structural engineers will get the ability to analyze and design different types of structures virtually. In this tutorial, one will learn how to analyze a continuous beam that has to withstand various types of load.

A continuous beam is defined as a statically indeterminate multispan beam that is supported by various columns. Here three beams are supported by columns in a straight line.

The end spans may belong to cantilever, may be freely supported or fixed supported. As a minimum one of the supports of a continuous beam should contain the ability to grow a reaction along the beam axis.

How to use Staad Pro computer program to analyze a continuous beam with various types of loading

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Arka Roy

Detailed process for measuring weight of steel

This is a useful video for construction professionals. The video will teach you how to estimate weight of steel. In this video, two diverse formulas are applied – Density Method and D square /162 Method.

Density refers to the mass of an object that is divided with its volume. Density frequently contains units of grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3). Keep in mind, grams mean a mass and cubic centimeters mean a volume (the identical volume as 1 milliliter).

As density is mass per unit volume, the density of a metal is measured by submerging it in an identified amount of water and computing how much the water increases. It is the volume of the metal. Its mass is calculated with a scale. The unit for density is gm/cm3.

Detailed process for measuring weight of steel

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Arka Roy

Brief overview of working stress design & its parameters

This article is extracted from an exclusive construction article written by Noel Mades, a renowned civil engineer. The article sheds light on working stress design and its criterions.

Working stress design is a useful design process in which structures or members are well-balanced toward prearranged working loads at stresses which are under their ultimate values; linear distribution of flexural stresses is accepted.

It’s a customary method applicable for reinforced concrete design (beams, slabs, columns, footing etc.) where concrete is supposed to be elastic, steel and concrete which act elastically in an organized way where the relationship among loads and stresses is linear.

Working Stress Design refers to the proportion among modulus of elasticity of steel and concrete. This conservative method of design greatly impacts modern structural design.

It is also dependent on the elastic theory under which the materials, concrete, and steel are supposed to be stressed properly beneath their elastic limit under the design loads.

Given below, the criterions of working stress design.

  1. Stress-Strain Diagram

It is a diagram that demonstrates the stress and strain relationships as well as the elastic limit where the young’s modulus is used and defined as the “elastic region” happens. The yield point, ultimate tensile stress, and the point of fracture are also specified.

To gather more information, go through the following link.

Brief overview of working stress design & its parameters

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Arka Roy

How to use Mohr’s Circle to find out shear stresses & principal stresses

This construction video tutorial is based on Mohr’s Circle Maximum Shear Stress & Principal Stresses SOM.

Christian Otto Mohr, a renowned civil engineer, has developed Mohr Circle. This exclusive graphical method can be used by designer to find out principal stresses.

Mohr Circle stands for a two-dimensional graphical illustration concerning the transformation law toward the Cauchy stress tensor.

Mohr’s circle reveals the principal angles (orientations) concerning the principal stresses devoid of plugging an angle into stress transformation equations. It proceeds with a stress or strain element in the XY plane, builds a grid with a normal stress on the horizontal axis as well as a shear stress on the vertical.

This graphical representation is very valuable as it facilitates you to foresee the relationships among the normal and shear stresses operating on different inclined planes at a point in a stressed body.

Mohr’s Circle is used to measure principal stresses, maximum shear stresses as well as stresses on inclined planes.

How to use Mohr’s Circle

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Arka Roy

Some useful tips for machine foundation design

Before starting the detailing work for foundations, the following general needs concerning machine foundations should be fulfilled and the results should be verified.

  1. The foundation should have contained the capacity to bear the superimposed loads devoid of producing shear or crushing failure.
  2. The settlements should have been inside the allowable limits.
  3. The amalgamated centre of gravity of machine and foundation should have been maintained in the equivalent vertical line like the centre of gravity of the base plane.
  4. There should have been no resonance, therefore the normal frequency of the foundation–soil system should have been either too big or too small with regard to the operating frequency of the machine. Toward low-speed machines, the natural frequency should have been high.
  5. The amplitudes under service conditions should be maintained under allowable limits which are recommended by the machine manufacturers.
  6. All rotational and correlating parts of a machine should be well-adjusted efficiently with the purpose of reducing the unbalanced forces or moments.
  7. If necessary, the foundation should be planned in an efficient way with the intention of allowing a consequent adjustment of natural frequency by adjusting the base area or form of the foundation as may be essential afterward.

To read the complete article, go through the following link.

Some useful tips for machine foundation design

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Derivation of area of circle

This construction video will provide brief information on the formula derivation toward circle area. To estimate the area of a circle, the formula A=(πR^2) is applied. You will gather knowledge on the origin of the formula and the importance of it.

Here π stands for the ratio of the diameter of a circle to its circumference, and stands for the radius of the circle.

In geometry, the area surrounded with a circle of radius r is πr2. Here, π symbolizes a constant, roughly equivalent to 3.14159, that is the same as the ratio of the circumference of any circle to its diameter.

Go through the following video, to get the detailed process.

Derivation Of Circumference Of Circle

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Fundamentals of Residential Construction 4th Edition – An exclusive ebook by Alexander C. Schreyer

Edward Allen, Rob Thallon and Alexander C. Schreyer have jointly published an exclusive construction e-book alias Fundamentals of Residential Construction. The book provides detailed guidelines on the each step of construction process for building up single family and multifamily home building. This book sheds light on each and every step associated with home construction which range from siting and foundations to finishing details. The book is enriched with more than 1,200 drawings and photographs whereas collaborative accompanying online resources facilitate in getting an overview of the material. This latest publication highlights the newest improvements in materials and methods, along with new coverage of sustainable building and energy efficiency, multifamily construction, prefabricated building components, and CAD/BIM planning tools in residential construction. Important exposure on wood light-frame construction, building systems, industrialized fabrication, insulating concrete forms, light-gauge steel and masonry construction, multi-family buildings, and more offers a solid understanding of residential construction methods, tools, and processes.

While constructing a home, sound knowledge is necessary for materials, structures, codes, and management processes as these can help in arranging the preparation of expertise essential for finishing a residential project successfully.

  • Be familiar with the pros and cons of common materials and systems
  • Gather knowledge on site preparation, foundations, and framing
  • Dip into the details of roofing, finishing, and energy efficiency
  • Recognize heating/cooling, plumbing, and electrical options
  • Explore through the newest codes, costs, and management best practices


Bar bending schedule offers the steel quantity requirement in a better way and thus delivers an option to make optimal use of the design in case of cost overflow.

The process becomes simple for site engineers to validate and approve the bar bending and cutting length throughout inspection prior to positioning of concrete with the support of bar bending schedule and thus facilitates in superior quality control.

It becomes easier to handle the reinforcement stock necessary for identified time duration.

It will facilitate to fabrication of R/F with structure.

Buy the book online from Amazon by clicking on the following link
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Fundamentals of Residential Construction

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Arka Roy