Various Elements Of Bridge Structures

A bridge refers to a structure that arranges a passage over a hurdle devoid of closing the way underneath. The necessary passage will be intended for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipeline. The hurdle to be spanned may be a river, a road, railway or a valley.

Categorization of Bridges

Category of Bridges (based on form (or) type of superstructures)

1. Slab bridge

2. Beam bridge

3. Truss bridge

4. Arch bridge

5. Cable stayed (or )suspended bridge

Category of bridges (based on construction material of superstructure)

1. Timber bridge

2. Concrete bridge

3. Stone bridge

4. R.C.C bridge

5. Steel bridge

6. P.C.C bridge

7. Composite bridge

8. Aluminum bridge

Category of bridges (As per inter-span relationship)

1. Simply supported bridge

2. Cantilever bridge

3. Continuous bridge

Classification of bridges (Following the placing of the bridge floor compared with superstructures)

1. Deck through bridge

2. Half through or suspension bridge

Categorization in terms of method of connection of various part of superstructures

1. Pinned connection bridge

2. Riveted connection bridge

3. Welded connection bridge

On the basis of length of bridge

1. Culvert bridge(less than 6 m)

2. Minor bridge(less than 6 m-60m)

3. Major bridge(more than 60 m)

4. Long span bridge(more than 120 m)

On the basis of function

1. Aqueduct bridge(canal over a river)

2. Viaduct(road or railway over a valley or river)

3. Pedestrian bridge

4. Highway bridge

5. Railway bridge

6. Road-cum-rail or pipe line bridge

For more information, visit this link

Various elements of Bridge Structures

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Published By

Arka Roy

www.constructioncost.co

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An Exclusive Construction Demo On Finite Element Modeling Of RC Beams

This construction video is extracted from an exclusive presentation by Raafat El-Hacha, Associate Professor, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, that focused on the tolerable performance of concrete bridges as well as their components when based on rigorous environmental conditions.

The session covers a range of technical features like strength of concrete members, techniques for checking performance, appraisal methodologies, damage appraisement, and structural restoration supported with both experimental and analytical examinations. The session highlighted current research outcomes as well as offers the scope to talk about existing confrontations and technical issues. The session is ideal for the professionals who play a vital role in tomorrow’s bridge design and construction, along with practicing engineers, government officials, and academics to obtain crucial information.

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Published By
Arka Roy
www.constructioncost.co
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Reinforcing Of Shear Wall

The boundary elements, whether regular or hidden, are reinforced based on the rules which are assigned to columns.

For reinforcing of the wall body, there are two parallel grates (known as curtains) one at each face. They are retained collectively through an ‘S’-shaped vertical bar. The vertical and horizontal grate rebars should contain a diameter at least identical to Ø8 .The reinforcement with “S” shape must be higher or equivalent to 4Φ8/m2

To avoid cracked surfaces e.g. in pool sides, narrow spaced grates should be applied having the lower possible rebar diameter.

To avoid cracked surfaces e.g. in pool sides, narrow spaced grates should be applied having the lower possible rebar diameter.

The ‘S’- shaped reinforcement

The ‘S’-shaped bar offers anti-buckling restraint to the longitudinal reinforcement. Besides, it makes sure that the vertical and the horizontal rebars will progress work jointly regardless of a potential concrete spalling that may occur due to an strong earthquake.

The ‘S’-shaped link is developed with one closed corner at an angle similar to 180°, or 135° and the other corner bent at an angle equivalent to 90°. This is crucial for positioning it without any difficulty. Once it is applied, the second corner must be also bent at an angle at least equivalent to 135°.

It is acceptable to apply soft steel to have the ability to bent the ‘S’-shaped reinforcement manually.

If the vertical rebars are positoned in an interior layer, then the ‘S’-shaped link must detain the horizontal rebars to the region that they bisect with the vertical ones or get around both horizontal and vertical rebars simultaneously.

On the other hand, in an rectangular shear wall, the reinforcement of the boundary column and the distribution rebars of the wall’s body is carried out as two ‘Γ’ shaped parts. Folded mesh is applied to develop the ‘Γ’ shaped parts.

Ref : debug.pi.gr

Reinforcing of Shear Wall
Image Courtesy – debug.pi.gr
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Published By
Arka Roy
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Construction Master 5 – A Useful Construction Tool For Building Professionals

This construction video is based on Construction Master 5 contractor calculator. By watching this video one can learn how 5’s stair function of construction master can save significant time for building professionals for computation and stair table lookups.

Construction Master 5 contractor calculator’s in-built stair layout key can provide streamlined solution to develop your next stairs together with number of risers, riser height, number of treads, tread widths, stringer length, angle of incline and total run of the stairs.

Get trained how to utilize this construction math power tool to execute all your design, estimating and jobsite calculations easily, instantly and perfectly to make your productivity and profitability better.

This construction calculator offers the following features :-

Dimensional Math and Conversions

• Performs and transforms among building dimensional formats: Yards, Feet-Inch-Fractions, Decimal Feet-Inches and Metric – together with Area and Volume

• Detect Weight per Volume Committed Functions

• Workout Stair for Risers, Treads, Stringer Length and Incline Angle; shows Run and Rise

• Custom Rafter Function offers Common Rafters, Regular and Irregular Hips, Valleys and Jacks. Jack Rafter feature offers comprehensive solutions for Normal and Asymmetrical Pitch roofs. Exposes On-center spacing.

• Solutions for Circles, Arcs, Columns, Pillars, Windows, Post-holes and more

• Rake-Wall function defines Stud Length for any On-center Spacing, in Ascending or Descending order

• Board Feet Lumber calculation

To get more information, visit this link

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Published By
Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
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How To Examine The Quality Of Building Materials In The Jobsite

Brick, cement, sand and stone chips are considered as the most vital construction materials which are generally found in all types of Civil engineering construction ranging from brickwork to floor finishing.

So, an accurate quality control should be initiated in every phase specifically at the initial phase where it is essential to choose proper materials for a construction type. In order to determine the quality (if the any material is good or worst) of the primary construction materials like Brick, Cement, Sand and Stone Chips, the materials should be examined visually through jobsite test.

Verification of Brick :-

The following field tests are necessary to decide whether a Brick is good or not:-

1. A good brick must contain perfect shape and customary specified size, the edges of the brick should be sharp, the brick should be free from any cracks and fissures.

2. The brick should be colored with copper red color. A yellowish shade on brick denotes that it is going through burning process and therefore contains inferior strength. If a brick is made of dark blackish blue color then it denotes the brick is burnt excessively and is breakable in nature. 

3. When a brick is collided with a hammer or against another brick, there should be a clear metallic ringing sound that indicates that it is not dull.

4. A newly broken brick should display a standardized compact structure devoid of containing any lumps. 

5. If a brick is fallen from about a height of 1m on a solid ground or on another brick, it should not break. 

6. If a brick is dented with finger nail it should not provide any mark on the brick. 

7. A perfect quality brick (1st Class) should not consume water by not over 20% of its own Dry weight when submerged in water for a period of 24 Hours.

For getting further information, visit this link

How to examine the quality of building materials in the jobsite

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Published By

Arka Roy

www.constructioncost.co

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How Concrete Strength Is Influenced By Water To Cement Ratio

Water to cement ratio refers to ratio related to the weight of water and the weight of cement which are the essential part of a fresh concrete mix. The stability of compacted concrete mainly relies on water to cement ratio. Cured concrete strength is based on the following two main aspects :-

1. Water to cement ratio

2. Degree of compaction

Air voids in concrete happen on the basis of the water to cement ratio. If the weight of water rises, air voids is also raised. Due to this circumstance, the concrete strength is also decreased. Solidified concrete includes about 1% of air voids. If a concrete is in a solidified condition, strength is contrarily proportionate to the water/cement ratio.

The following figure indicates that validity range of water to cement ratio is very restricted. Compressive strength will be higher, when water to cement ratio is down. The starting of the curve is based on the existing methods of compaction (that is either accomplished with vibrators or compaction by hand). If large size aggregates are applied with low water to cement ratio and greater contents of cement then it reveals deterioration of the concrete strength.

How Concrete Strength Is Influenced By Water To Cement Ratio

So, if there exist a low water to cement ratio in a fresh mix than as soon as the concrete is solidified, water/cement fails to keep a greater concrete strength. These conditions occur due to the formation of tensile stresses for shrinkage and creep. It results in cracking of the cement or losing bonds (that happens amid cement and aggregates) just as aggregates attempt to control the tensile stresses.

So, low water to cement ratio may cause major issues in solidification of concrete. If water to cement ratio is low in a fresh mix, then less water is available for the hydration of cement. Hence, some amount of cement paste stays un-hydrated that causes internally tension in concrete as well as feeble bond. The strength that might be established under the present situation is mainly based on the following four factors :-

1. Water to cement ratio

2. Cement to aggregate ratio

3. Maximum aggregate size

4. Physical properties of aggregates

The factors (2,3 and 4) are not so vital whereas factor (1) is the most crucial factor. Since strength of concrete is affected by the strength of mortar, bond of mortar with aggregates and coarse aggregates strength.

To get more information, visit this link

How Concrete Strength Is Influenced By Water To Cement Ratio

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Published By

Arka Roy

www.constructioncost.co

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

How To Examine The Quality Of Building Materials In The Jobsite

Brick, cement, sand and stone chips are considered as the most vital construction materials which are generally found in all types of Civil engineering construction ranging from brickwork to floor finishing.

So, an accurate quality control should be initiated in every phase specifically at the initial phase where it is essential to choose proper materials for a construction type. In order to determine the quality (if the any material is good or worst) of the primary construction materials like Brick, Cement, Sand and Stone Chips, the materials should be examined visually through jobsite test.

Verification of Brick :-

The following field tests are necessary to decide whether a Brick is good or not:-

1. A good brick must contain perfect shape and customary specified size, the edges of the brick should be sharp, the brick should be free from any cracks and fissures.

2. The brick should be colored with copper red color. A yellowish shade on brick denotes that it is going through burning process and therefore contains inferior strength. If a brick is made of dark blackish blue color then it denotes the brick is burnt excessively and is breakable in nature. 

3. When a brick is collided with a hammer or against another brick, there should be a clear metallic ringing sound that indicates that it is not dull.

4. A newly broken brick should display a standardized compact structure devoid of containing any lumps. 

5. If a brick is fallen from about a height of 1m on a solid ground or on another brick, it should not break. 

6. If a brick is dented with finger nail it should not provide any mark on the brick. 

7. A perfect quality brick (1st Class) should not consume water by not over 20% of its own Dry weight when submerged in water for a period of 24 Hours.

For getting further information, visit this link

How to examine the quality of building materials in the jobsite

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Published By

Arka Roy

www.constructioncost.co

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Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) And Its Properties

Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) is a great substitute for R-30 (or higher) walls toward single and multifamily construction.

SIPs belong to a manufactured “sandwich” panel which are formed with two exterior faces of oriented-strand-board (OSB) wrapped with a core of stretched polystyrene foam insulation (EPS).

Based on the manufacturer and the needed properties of the final wall system, the material contained by the outer faces and the foam insulation core can differ. Alternate insulation cores consist of extruded polystyrene (XPS), polyisocyanurate and polyurethane. Besides OSB faces, there are other materials like plywood, straw board, and cement board.

Panels containing interior gypsum board or tongue-and-groove pine boards are also obtainable but these may be easily spoiled in transit. So, proper care should be taken while installing & handling them. The complete thickness of the foam core (and thus the R-value attained) is also adjustable and is normally available in dimensions.

Typical foam-core thicknesses are 3-1/2”, 5-1/2”, 7-3/8”, and 9-3/8”.

The complete, nominal R-value of a SIPs wall is a function of its thickness and the type of core insulation applied. Usually EPS foam is R-4 per inch, XPS is R-5 per inch, and polyisocyanurate and polyurethane are roughly R-6.5 per inch (the higher R-value cores are consistently more costly).

Building Design and Planning Considerations

In order to install SIPs successfully in a building project, proper plan should be set up to make the project panel-friendly.

Therefore, the design of the building should be simple in form devoid of any unnecessary jogs, bump-outs, non-90 degree angles, as well as the envelope openings are arranged to match with panel dimensions.

SIPs are applied virtually to any house design, but with a non-panel friendly plan, the amount of waste, internal posts, headers and structural panel slice lumber will rapidly count reducing the cost and performance advantage of a more improved design. The utilization of standard heights is correspondingly crucial in managing costs and eliminating waste. The availability of the largest panel is 8’ x 24’ (on the basis of the limits of obtainable OSB manufacturing), SIPs positioned horizontally contain a extreme wall height of 96”.

Similarly, SIPs positioned vertically contain a maximum width of 96”, but can be applied with full height to attain 8’, 9’, or even 10’ high walls.

Due to its more inflexible nature, cement board SIPs are more limited in dimension as compared to OSB SIPs, with usual sizes of 3’ x 8’, 3 x 9’, and 3’ x 10’ and are therefore always positioned vertically.

For more information, click on this link

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Published By

Arka Roy

www.constructioncost.co

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The Forthcoming Estimating Courses In July And September By CIIA

Registration is now open for the next class of Collision Industry Information Assistance (CIIA) is going to conduct its basic estimating collision repair training course and one can register for the course online.

This fundamental estimating course is specifically planned to facilitate shop or office employees, new estimators and insurance company staff to simplify their estimating process for collision damage on cars and light trucks in Ontario.

The course covers various topics like introduction to estimating, good perception on vehicle construction, basics of estimate writing, gather knowledge on collision manuals, added charges and collision damage analysis.

The course fee is $550 + HST, for each person for CIIA members and $750 + HST, for each person for non-members. One has to make prior payment to attend the course.

Employers will be liable for a total rebate of two-thirds of the course fees. To register their seat, students must contact the CIIA office at 1-866-309-4272 or e-mailing info@ciia.com.

The forthcoming courses will be organized in two full days in Ottawa, Burlington and Toronto.

OTTAWA: Friday June 24 and Saturday June 25

8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m.

BURLINGTON: Friday July 22 and Saturday July 23

8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m.

TORONTO: Friday September 23 and Saturday September 24

8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m.

The forthcoming estimating courses

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Published By

Arka Roy

www.constructioncost.co

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How To Resist Cracking In Fresh Concrete

Usually, the contractor should take responsibility with all essential steps to track and resist cracking in fresh hydrating concrete, devoid of the size or volume of the pour. The steps should be approved by the Engineer and ensure that extreme surface crack width on hardened concrete measure instantly after the pour does not surpass 0.004 times the nominal cover of the primary reinforcement.

The contractor will be responsible for and offer sanctioned instrumentation for measuring the variation of internal temperature in large pours. The extreme concrete temperature at the point of delivery usually shall not surpass the lower of either 37 degree C, or 6 degree C beyond the existing shade temperature compliant with the approvals of ACI. The limiting internal temperature differential measured over the maximum faces of concrete mass shall not go above 25 degrees C at any time.

Curing of hardened concrete will be done according to the curing specification. Usually, the element surface is not chilled to disperse heat from the concrete. Curing methods, like the drenching of heated concrete elements uncovered to long and direct radiation, which produce temperature gradients inside the concrete mass, are not recommended for application.

For big pours, the contractor will be liable for and take additional provisions to lessen concrete temperature gradient as well as check the loss of surface moisture. Such steps are described below :-

 Maintaining all mix ingredients shaded where feasible to decrease their temperatures in         the stockpile

 Chilling of mixing water and/or substituting part or entire of the extra water with ice.

 Lessening the cement content with the application of admixtures (but not lower that is           essential for the stability)

 Applying a cement having a inferior heat of hydration

 Injecting liquid nitrogen once the concrete is blended

 Limiting the time amid mixing and assigning of the concrete to below 2 hours

 Delivering permitted surface insulation constantly over all uncovered surfaces to resist           draughts as well as keep identical temperature with the concrete mass

 Starting curing instantly once final tamping is done and carry on till the permitted surface     insulation system is completely prepared

 Providing shade to the concrete surface to resist heat obtained from direct radiation.

For more information, click on this link

How to resist cracking in fresh concrete

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Published By

Arka Roy

www.constructioncost.co

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