# How to study column footing drawing for a structure

This construction video offers detailed guidelines on how to check column footing drawing.

Footings stand for structural elements which deliver the loads of column or wall to the elementary soil underneath the structure. Footings are built up to disperse these loads to the soil devoid of surpassing its safe bearing capacity, to resist enormous settlement of the structure to an acceptable limit with the purpose of reducing differential settlement as well as withstanding sliding and overturning.

The settlement is dependent on the depth of the load, nature of soil, and foundation level. If there is differential settlement, the different footings have to be designed in such a manner to settle self-reliantly of each other.

Foundation design comprises of a soil study to set up the most suitable type of foundation and a structural design to find out footing dimensions and necessary amount of reinforcement. As the compressive strength of the soil is normally much weaker as compared to the concrete, the contact area among the soil and the footing is much bigger with regard to that of the columns and walls.

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Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
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# How to derive formula for super elevation or road bending

By going through the following construction video, you can learn the tips for obtaining formula toward full super elevation of highway or road. This video is very useful for land surveying.

Full super-elevation stands for the amount with which the external edge of a curve located at a road or railway is grounded directly above the inner edge. Its units range from meter/meter or feet/feet.

Another definition of super-elevation is the vertical distance among the heights of inward and external edges of highway pavement or railroad rails.

In order to neutralize the consequence of centrifugal force as well as decrease the trend of vehicle to overturn and to slide laterally outsides, pavement outer edge is elevated in regard to inner edge. Consequently, delivering a transverse slope is called Super elevation.

The formula is used for full super elevation = h = Bv2/gR

Here B denotes breath of the road, v stands for speed of vehicle, g stands for acceleration (that is 9.8 m/s2) and R stands for radius of circular curve.

To know the detailed process, go through the following video.

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Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
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# Shear Force and Bending Moment Of Simply Supported Beam With Point Load

The Civil Engineers should contain clear and concise ideas on shear force and bending moment to make perfect analysis of any structure as well as design of any structural member.

In this regard, Parag Pal, the famous B.E. Civil Engineer, has presented a useful video that focuses on shear force and bending moment of simply supported beam with point load to find out the sfd and bmd of any point load member.

In engineering term, a point load refers to an established load (force) that is situated with a single, specific point on a supporting structure or structural member.

In construction, a point load is set aside only for lighter structures or other cases where the load or force is comparatively light and not cause to undergo unnecessary stresses. To sustain structural reliability, designs and blueprints are properly planned to prevent the application of point loads in other situations.

If Point loads are not predicted, they can result in collapsing of structures.

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Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
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# How to use excel to calculate required labor for Brick Masonry Work

Brick masonry is the process for developing the buildings and other structures with the application of brick stone, stone blocks, brick blocks which are arranged in a particular pattern and joined unitedly, generally with mortar. Sometimes, the term also refers to the brick units themselves. Masonry is recognized as a long-lasting construction system, and brick is one of the most normal types of masonry applied in industrialized nations. The longevity of a structure developed with this method is based on the type and consistency of the separate bricks chosen along with the style of masonry utilized.

This is a useful construction video presented by Unite Constructions And Unite Coaching. The video will teach you how to use Microsoft Excel to calculate the number of Labors essential for brick masonry work.

The rates for the required number of labors toward concrete work are derived from a standard DSR Book (District Schedule Rates Book).

The process is shown in a tabular form. The table contains different types of heads like serial number, labor, quantity of labors each 10 cu.m of work, rate per day (8 hours), total amount etc. There are different types of labor like head mason, mason, male worker, water carrier, sundries.

Brick Masonry involves proportion of mortar, volume of brick masonry, dry volume of mortar (with frog filling, wastage etc.), cement, cement bags, sand, number of bricks, assuming 5% wastage.

Cost of material is prepared for cement, sand and bricks.

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Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
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# How to organize building layout in 90 degree angle

While laying out a floor, garden or other home improvement project, it becomes difficult to maintain exact angles. If your project needs a correctly square right angle to develop, there exist a rapid, easy way to create one. By applying a measuring tape, and a little math, it is possible to lay out a proper 90-degree angle each time.

In the following construction video tutorial, you can get some useful construction tips for arranging building layout in 90 degree angle.

In the example given in this video, a room of the building is selected and the process is shown for maintaining the 90 degree angles in all the corners of the room.

To get more details, go through the following youtube video.

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Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
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# Detailed process for measuring weight of steel

This is a useful video for construction professionals. The video will teach you how to estimate weight of steel. In this video, two diverse formulas are applied – Density Method and D square /162 Method.

Density refers to the mass of an object that is divided with its volume. Density frequently contains units of grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3). Keep in mind, grams mean a mass and cubic centimeters mean a volume (the identical volume as 1 milliliter).

As density is mass per unit volume, the density of a metal is measured by submerging it in an identified amount of water and computing how much the water increases. It is the volume of the metal. Its mass is calculated with a scale. The unit for density is gm/cm3.

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Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
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# Joint Detailing of Steel Hollow Sections

Likewise detailing of main structural members, detailing of joints in steel structure is also very vital. Joints mainly bear the loads which are transmitted from structures to various structural members. Therefore, the detailing work of joints in steel structure should be performed efficiently to make the structure secure for the specified loads.

Given below, the detailed information concerning the types of joints generally applied for structural steel hollow sections. There are different types of hollow sections which range from Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS) and Square Hollow Sections (SHS) and Circular Hollow Sections (CHS).

Given below, the joint details for structural steel hollow sections (RHS and SHS) which are generally applied:

1. K – Type Joints: K – Type joints in steel structures develop as soon as the centroidal axis of horizontal member and two lateral bracings touch with the central axis of top chord.

Make sure that the ends of hollow sections should be closed. If any ends of a hollow section does not come nearer because of more width, then a plate is welded on that end so that the ends come to the nearer as well as the connection with other members remain effective with the sealing of the members. It resists inner corrosion of the hollow sections.

K-type of joints in structural steel members is easiest and most cost effective.

1. Knee – Type Joint: Knee-type joint is ideal for enhancing the strength of connection among vertical and horizontal members of structure.

In welded knee-joint, the chord situated at top is directly welded to the primary column and then an appropriately cut haunch is welded to the vertical and the chord member for making stiffening superior.

1. N – Type Joint: By following the implemented configuration, N-type joint is developed for relating web members to top and bottom chords.

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Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
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# Some useful design and analysis software for engineers

This construction video provides the detailed lists of most recognized design and analysis software for Civil Engineering.

The lists include the following :-

Bentley Staad Pro – It is used for 3d structural analysis and design. With it, one can design different types of structures as well as distribute synchronized model data efficiently with the whole design team.

SAP 2000 – It offers composite solution for structural analysis and design with its advanced analytical methods. Use this software to generate structural models quickly and intuitively devoid of long learning curve delays.

Struds – It is the ideal software for creating design of concrete structures as per Indian codes as well as designing high rise concrete buildings and various building elements like slabs, beams, columns, shear walls and foundations etc. instantly and smoothly.

Etabs – A composite software package for making the structural analysis and design of buildings. ETABS provides supreme 3D object based modeling and visualization tools, deeply quick linear and nonlinear analytical power, profound and wide-ranging design powers for a wide array of materials, and insightful graphic displays, reports, and schematic drawings that facilitate the users to instantly and easily solve and recognize analysis and design results.

GT Strudl – It is a powerful structural analysis and design modeling software for structural engineers. The software can be applied for concrete, steel, and reinforced concrete design of structures.

Microstation – It is a CAD software product from Bentley Systems for two and three dimensional design and drafting. With MicroStation, it is possible to efficiently view, model, document, and visualize projects of any size or complexity.

Ansys – It is a useful product for engineering simulation over the complete product lifecycle, ranging from digital exploration to digital prototyping to operations and maintenance with digital twins.

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Arka Roy

http://www.constructioncost.co

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# How to become a General, Building or Residential Contractor

Learn how to become a Florida State Certified General Contractor in this systematic video. You will learn how to get your general contractors license and how Gold Coast School of Construction will help you get ready for the state exam.