# Some useful construction tips on concrete mix design

This construction video tutorial focuses on concrete mix design. In this video grades are taken as M 7.5, M10, M15, M20 and mix ratios for cement, sand and aggregate are taken as 1:4:8, 1:3:6, 1:2:4, 1:1.5:3. The amount of water is required for amalgamating concrete in 50 kg cement.

Concrete mix design refers to the method of choosing the appropriate components (cement, sand and coarse aggregates) as well as their relevant proportions with the purpose of developing concrete by maintaining specific minimum strength & durability.

Objective of mix design
To make sure that the optimal ratios of the constituent materials is maintained to satisfy the need of the structure.
To obtain the preferred minimum strength in the hardened stage.

To obtain the needed minimum strength in the hardened stage.
To obtain the preferred strength in the specified environment conditions
To form concrete as inexpensively as possible.

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Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
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# Shear Force and Bending Moment Of Simply Supported Beam With Point Load

The Civil Engineers should contain clear and concise ideas on shear force and bending moment to make perfect analysis of any structure as well as design of any structural member.

In this regard, Parag Pal, the famous B.E. Civil Engineer, has presented a useful video that focuses on shear force and bending moment of simply supported beam with point load to find out the sfd and bmd of any point load member.

In engineering term, a point load refers to an established load (force) that is situated with a single, specific point on a supporting structure or structural member.

In construction, a point load is set aside only for lighter structures or other cases where the load or force is comparatively light and not cause to undergo unnecessary stresses. To sustain structural reliability, designs and blueprints are properly planned to prevent the application of point loads in other situations.

If Point loads are not predicted, they can result in collapsing of structures.

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Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
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# How to use excel to calculate required labor for Brick Masonry Work

Brick masonry is the process for developing the buildings and other structures with the application of brick stone, stone blocks, brick blocks which are arranged in a particular pattern and joined unitedly, generally with mortar. Sometimes, the term also refers to the brick units themselves. Masonry is recognized as a long-lasting construction system, and brick is one of the most normal types of masonry applied in industrialized nations. The longevity of a structure developed with this method is based on the type and consistency of the separate bricks chosen along with the style of masonry utilized.

This is a useful construction video presented by Unite Constructions And Unite Coaching. The video will teach you how to use Microsoft Excel to calculate the number of Labors essential for brick masonry work.

The rates for the required number of labors toward concrete work are derived from a standard DSR Book (District Schedule Rates Book).

The process is shown in a tabular form. The table contains different types of heads like serial number, labor, quantity of labors each 10 cu.m of work, rate per day (8 hours), total amount etc. There are different types of labor like head mason, mason, male worker, water carrier, sundries.

Brick Masonry involves proportion of mortar, volume of brick masonry, dry volume of mortar (with frog filling, wastage etc.), cement, cement bags, sand, number of bricks, assuming 5% wastage.

Cost of material is prepared for cement, sand and bricks.

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Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
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# How to organize building layout in 90 degree angle

While laying out a floor, garden or other home improvement project, it becomes difficult to maintain exact angles. If your project needs a correctly square right angle to develop, there exist a rapid, easy way to create one. By applying a measuring tape, and a little math, it is possible to lay out a proper 90-degree angle each time.

In the following construction video tutorial, you can get some useful construction tips for arranging building layout in 90 degree angle.

In the example given in this video, a room of the building is selected and the process is shown for maintaining the 90 degree angles in all the corners of the room.

To get more details, go through the following youtube video.

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Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
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# How to use Staad Pro computer program to analyze a continuous beam with various types of loading

This is another exclusive tutorial from Unite Coaching. The tutorial is based on estimating with Staad Pro. Staad Pro is a globally recognized computer program for effective structural analysis and design. It is compatible with all Indian and all international codes.

With STAAD.Pro, the structural engineers will get the ability to analyze and design different types of structures virtually. In this tutorial, one will learn how to analyze a continuous beam that has to withstand various types of load.

A continuous beam is defined as a statically indeterminate multispan beam that is supported by various columns. Here three beams are supported by columns in a straight line.

The end spans may belong to cantilever, may be freely supported or fixed supported. As a minimum one of the supports of a continuous beam should contain the ability to grow a reaction along the beam axis.

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Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
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# Detailed process for measuring weight of steel

This is a useful video for construction professionals. The video will teach you how to estimate weight of steel. In this video, two diverse formulas are applied – Density Method and D square /162 Method.

Density refers to the mass of an object that is divided with its volume. Density frequently contains units of grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3). Keep in mind, grams mean a mass and cubic centimeters mean a volume (the identical volume as 1 milliliter).

As density is mass per unit volume, the density of a metal is measured by submerging it in an identified amount of water and computing how much the water increases. It is the volume of the metal. Its mass is calculated with a scale. The unit for density is gm/cm3.

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Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
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# Joint Detailing of Steel Hollow Sections

Likewise detailing of main structural members, detailing of joints in steel structure is also very vital. Joints mainly bear the loads which are transmitted from structures to various structural members. Therefore, the detailing work of joints in steel structure should be performed efficiently to make the structure secure for the specified loads.

Given below, the detailed information concerning the types of joints generally applied for structural steel hollow sections. There are different types of hollow sections which range from Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS) and Square Hollow Sections (SHS) and Circular Hollow Sections (CHS).

Given below, the joint details for structural steel hollow sections (RHS and SHS) which are generally applied:

1. K – Type Joints: K – Type joints in steel structures develop as soon as the centroidal axis of horizontal member and two lateral bracings touch with the central axis of top chord.

Make sure that the ends of hollow sections should be closed. If any ends of a hollow section does not come nearer because of more width, then a plate is welded on that end so that the ends come to the nearer as well as the connection with other members remain effective with the sealing of the members. It resists inner corrosion of the hollow sections.

K-type of joints in structural steel members is easiest and most cost effective.

1. Knee – Type Joint: Knee-type joint is ideal for enhancing the strength of connection among vertical and horizontal members of structure.

In welded knee-joint, the chord situated at top is directly welded to the primary column and then an appropriately cut haunch is welded to the vertical and the chord member for making stiffening superior.

1. N – Type Joint: By following the implemented configuration, N-type joint is developed for relating web members to top and bottom chords.

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Arka Roy
http://www.constructioncost.co
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# Some useful design and analysis software for engineers

This construction video provides the detailed lists of most recognized design and analysis software for Civil Engineering.

The lists include the following :-

Bentley Staad Pro – It is used for 3d structural analysis and design. With it, one can design different types of structures as well as distribute synchronized model data efficiently with the whole design team.

SAP 2000 – It offers composite solution for structural analysis and design with its advanced analytical methods. Use this software to generate structural models quickly and intuitively devoid of long learning curve delays.

Struds – It is the ideal software for creating design of concrete structures as per Indian codes as well as designing high rise concrete buildings and various building elements like slabs, beams, columns, shear walls and foundations etc. instantly and smoothly.

Etabs – A composite software package for making the structural analysis and design of buildings. ETABS provides supreme 3D object based modeling and visualization tools, deeply quick linear and nonlinear analytical power, profound and wide-ranging design powers for a wide array of materials, and insightful graphic displays, reports, and schematic drawings that facilitate the users to instantly and easily solve and recognize analysis and design results.

GT Strudl – It is a powerful structural analysis and design modeling software for structural engineers. The software can be applied for concrete, steel, and reinforced concrete design of structures.

Microstation – It is a CAD software product from Bentley Systems for two and three dimensional design and drafting. With MicroStation, it is possible to efficiently view, model, document, and visualize projects of any size or complexity.

Ansys – It is a useful product for engineering simulation over the complete product lifecycle, ranging from digital exploration to digital prototyping to operations and maintenance with digital twins.

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Arka Roy

http://www.constructioncost.co

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# Different methods to strengthen the masonry walls

Strengthening of masonry walls is required to prevent failure and collapse during major earthquake or addition of extra load on buildings. Strengthening of masonry walls also may be required during rehabilitation of buildings.

Due to severe earthquake or inclusion of additional weight on buildings, the building may fall or collapse. To get rid of this type of issue, the masonry walls should be reinforced perfectly. Reinforcing of masonry walls is also needed throughout rehabilitation of buildings.

Unreinforced masonry walls contain sufficient compressive strength, but they are breakable and very fragile under the influence of lateral loads which lead to tension in walls. On every occasion, tension forces operate on a masonry wall, it has a tendency for being cracked.

Cracking of masonry walls happen because of foundation settlement, all through earthquakes, employment of lateral loads. Cracking for masonry wall may occur for different reasons but these can lead to collapse of wall entirely.

Under load bearing masonry buildings, loads from the building is delivered through walls and failure and collapse of such masonry walls can result in collapsing of the entire building.

For reinforced concrete framed structures, though loads are delivered through columns, but if any earthquake occurs, these walls may develop cracks and fall.

Generally half brick thick masonry walls are applied as partitions in the interior of RC framed buildings. These half brick masonry walls are insecure to withstand the lateral forces throughout earthquake. Beyond plane strengthening of partitions can be accumulated jointly with lateral strengthening of building by arranging reinforced concrete jackets to the partitions.

To resist the collapsing of masonry walls throughout earthquake, it is recommended to utilize reinforced brick masonry walls in new construction. Prevailing masonry walls are also reinforced with the use of reinforced concrete jackets on one or both sides of the walls.

Masonry Wall Strengthening Process:

The following processes are applied to strengthen Masonry walls:

1. Arranging reinforced concrete jackets on one or both faces of walls.
2. Apply FRP Structural Repointing for strengthening of masonry walls.